Published online Aug 15, 2019. doi: 10.5495/wjcid.v9.i2.11
Peer-review started: May 7, 2019
First decision: June 18, 2019
Revised: June 22, 2019
Accepted: July 16, 2019
Article in press: July 17, 2019
Published online: August 15, 2019
Core tip: The spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has recently decreased in several countries due to the universal HBV vaccination of new-born babies and to the extended use of HBV nucleos(t)ide analogues with high genetic barrier to viral resistance. However, HBV vaccination and extensive educational and screening programs for at risk populations should be implemented predominantly in developing countries. New drugs targeting more than one HBV-lifecycle steps and of some new immunotherapeutic agents are under investigation with the aim of obtaining the clearance of hepatocytic covalent closed circular DNA through their synergistic action.