Brief Article
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World J Clin Pediatr. Feb 8, 2014; 3(1): 6-13
Published online Feb 8, 2014. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v3.i1.6
Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant status in overweight and morbidly obese Saudi children
Waleed H Albuali
Waleed H Albuali, Pediatric Department, College of Medicine, Dammam University, Dammam 31412, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Author contributions: Albuali WH solely contributed to this paper.
Correspondence to: Waleed H Albuali, MD, Assistant Professor of Paediatrics, Pediatric Department, College of Medicine, Dammam University, Dammam 31412, Pox Box 380, Al-Hsa 31982, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. wbuali@kfu.edu.sa
Telephone: +966-13-5800820 Fax: +966-13-5800820
Received: June 23, 2013
Revised: January 7, 2014
Accepted: January 17, 2014
Published online: February 8, 2014
Abstract

AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant enzymes and oxidative products in overweight and obese Saudi children before the onset of metabolic complications.

METHODS: The study was carried out on 231 Saudi children. They were classified into three groups: uncomplicated overweight, uncomplicated morbid obesity, and the matched age group as control. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, the concentrations of reduced GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA) oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) were measured in the blood of these groups.

RESULTS: Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher body mass index, while obese children only had a significantly higher waist-to-hip ratio compared to that of the control group. The enzyme activities under study were significantly elevated in the overweight group, although they were significantly reduced among obese children. The concentration of GSH was reduced in both the overweight and obese groups. The mean values of ox-LDL, MDA and AOPP were non-significantly increased in overweight children, while they were significantly elevated in obese children compared to that of normal weight children. A significant disturbance of oxidant-antioxidant status was observed in severely morbid children.

CONCLUSION: The increase of oxidative stress in obese children is associated with the increase in AOPPs and MDA which reflects an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defense.

Keywords: Saudi children, Body mass index, Malondialdehyde, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, Glutathione reductase, Reduced glutathione

Core tip: Childhood obesity is growing at an alarming rate and is concomitant with an increasing prevalence of oxidative stress. The association between obesity and oxidative stress is illustrated in the present study that showed that obese children with body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2 had higher oxidative products, e.g., malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations with lower antioxidants, e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase, and GSH. Therefore, the early recognition of these changes in oxidant status in children is important for preventing the long-term complications of obesity and targeting individual subjects who are particularly at risk. In addition, improving the oxidant status in overweight and obese children may reduce obesity-related comorbidities in adulthood.