Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Stomatol. Nov 20, 2015; 4(4): 126-128
Published online Nov 20, 2015. doi: 10.5321/wjs.v4.i4.126
About gravity and occlusal forces in the jaws: Review
Amos Ben Yehuda, Christine Singer, Joseph Katz
Amos Ben Yehuda, Private Practice, Jerusalem 91000, Israel
Christine Singer, Joseph Katz, Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States
Author contributions: Ben Yehuda A performed literature review and wrote the paper; Singer C helped in study design, literature search and writing the paper; Katz J wrote the paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Singer C and Dr. Katz J have no conflict of interests. Dr. Ben Yehuda A from Jerusalem Israel holds a patent.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Joseph Katz, Professor, Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, PO Box 100414, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States.
Telephone: +1-352-2736685 Fax: +1-352-2945311
Received: March 11, 2015
Peer-review started: March 12, 2015
First decision: April 27, 2015
Revised: May 9, 2015
Accepted: August 30, 2015
Article in press: August 31, 2015
Published online: November 20, 2015

Mechanical forces resulting from gravitation seem to be essential for structural adaptation and remodeling of skeletal bones. These forces have the capability of delivering powerfully distorting stimuli to skeletal bones in a very short time, several times a day, in a uniform direction. Facial and jaw bones are not subjected to gravity impact forces. These bones need a mechanism of “compensation” for this deficiency. The goal is achieved by a unique mechanism that substitutes for gravity impact forces - the mechanism of occlusal load transmission to the bone via the periodontal apparatus space. In cases of early loss of teeth and loss of periodontal ligament this mechanism will be missing resulting in premature bone aging.

Keywords: Gravity, Occlusal, Forces, Bone, Implant, Periodontal ligament

Core tip: The anatomy and physiology of the periodontal ligament is structured to oppose occlusal forces that impact facial bone in multidirectional vectors. This mechanism is different from the long bones that oppose only vertical forces. Dental implants planning and placement should be compatible with these principles.