Published online Nov 28, 2016. doi: 10.5320/wjr.v6.i3.69
Peer-review started: April 27, 2016
First decision: June 17, 2016
Revised: July 27, 2016
Accepted: August 17, 2016
Article in press: August 18, 2015
Published online: November 28, 2016
Core tip: Pulmonary complications after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are thought to be related to chemical injury caused by the infused ethiodized oil or chemotherapeutic agent, which can migrate to the lung vasculature via arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with the hyper-vascular HCC. The risk factors associated with post-TACE pulmonary complications include large hyper-vascular HCC, AV shunts, large volume of Lipiodol, and embolization via the right inferior phrenic artery. However, the absence of known risk factors is not a guarantee against serious complications. Careful monitoring of patients perioperatively and an awareness of the potential post-TACE pulmonary complications should expedite early recognition and effective management of these patients.