Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Otorhinolaryngol. May 28, 2016; 6(2): 33-40
Published online May 28, 2016. doi: 10.5319/wjo.v6.i2.33
Embryology of the nose: The evo-devo concept
Roger Jankowski, Samuel Márquez
Roger Jankowski, Service ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, 54500 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
Roger Jankowski, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lorraine, 54500 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
Samuel Márquez, Departments of Cell Biology and Otolaryngology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, United States
Author contributions: Both authors contributed to this paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: No conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Roger Jankowski, MD, PhD, Professor, Service ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Bâtiment Louis Mathieu, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
Telephone: +33-3-83155402
Received: September 14, 2015
Peer-review started: September 17, 2015
First decision: November 27, 2015
Revised: March 4, 2016
Accepted: March 17, 2016
Article in press: March 18, 2016
Published online: May 28, 2016
Core Tip

Core tip: The intricate and elaborate anatomy of the human nose can be best understood by gathering knowledge in evolution and development. Phylogenically and ontogenically, the nose results from two distinct entities: The olfactory and respiratory organ. In vertebrates, the olfactory placodes give rise to the fibrocartilaginous nose made of alar and septolateral cartilages, olfactory mucosa and the olfactory fascia; the respiratory nose develops by evolutionary remodeling of the palatal bones under the olfactory nose. In humans, the mammalian olfactory chambers are transformed into olfactory clefts and lateral masses of the ethmoid, and the transverse lamina separating the olfactory and respiratory noses has disappeared.