Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Dermatol. Feb 2, 2015; 4(1): 57-62
Published online Feb 2, 2015. doi: 10.5314/wjd.v4.i1.57
Salivary gland disease in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A review
Gaurav Sharma, Archna Nagpal
Gaurav Sharma, Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnosis, Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad 121002, Haryana, India
Archna Nagpal, Reader, Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnosis, Prabhu Dayal Memorial Dental College and Research Institute, Bahadurgarh 124507, Haryana, India
Author contributions: Sharma G and Nagpal A contributed to the manuscript; literature collection was done by Sharma G; writing and editing of the manuscript was done by Sharma G and Nagpal A.
Conflict-of-interest: The authors have no conflict of interest related to this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Gaurav Sharma, MDS, Reader, Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnosis, Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Kheri more, Bhopani, Faridabad 121002, Haryana, India.
Telephone: +91-129-4230000 Fax: +91-129-4230010
Received: July 2, 2014
Peer-review started: July 3, 2014
First decision: August 30, 2014
Revised: November 20, 2014
Accepted: November 27, 2014
Article in press: December 1, 2014
Published online: February 2, 2015

The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on salivary glands has diagnostic and prognostic significance. HIV-salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD) is comprehensively ascertained amongst the major critical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related oral manifestation and causes substantial morbidity. Parotid gland swelling due to sicca syndrome, parotid lipomatosis, sialadenitis, diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, benign lymphoepithelial lesions, neoplasms (benign or malignant) of salivary gland, parotid gland inflammation, diminished flow rates of saliva and xerostomia have been documented that also affects the health- associated characteristics of life in subjects infected with HIV. There is a necessity for health care researchers to diagnose it, particularly as it might worsen if left undiagnosed. The precise characteristic of alterations in dynamics of salivary gland structure and functionality with long-standing usage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy still remains unknown. HIV positive children also present with bilateral parotid enlargement and the syndrome state with classical clinical and cytological features of predominated lymphoid hyperplasia. Though various case reports and studies have been extensively published on different aspects of HIV-SGD, it has not been described solely, thus leading to occasional confusion of nomenclature and clinical presentation of HIV-SGD. This article reviews the pathogenesis of HIV-related SGD and its components and various other miscellaneous disorders affecting the salivary glands in HIV/AIDS.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Salivary gland diseases, Antiretroviral therapy, Highly active, Xerostomia

Core tip: Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the world has kept acquired immunodeficiency syndrome high on the agenda, rallying around global and regional commitments to turn the tide on HIV infection. There is limited data on the documentation of HIV salivary gland disease and the influence of highly active anti-retroviral therapy occurring on various components of salivary gland disorders in HIV. The purpose of writing this article is to review the clinical manifestations and the pathogenesis of salivary gland disorders in HIV in era of antiretroviral therapy and provide an update on latest treatment modalities in the management of various salivary gland disorders.