This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Emergent reintubation following elective cervical surgery: A case series
Joshua Schroeder, Stephan N Salzmann, Alexander P Hughes, James D Beckman, Jennifer Shue, Federico P Girardi
Joshua Schroeder, Stephan N Salzmann, Alexander P Hughes, James D Beckman, Jennifer Shue, Federico P Girardi, Spine Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY 10021, United States
ORCID number: $[AuthorORCIDs]
Author contributions: Schroeder J designed and performed the research, analyzed the data and wrote the paper; Salzmann SN analyzed the data and wrote the paper; Hughes AP designed the research and provided clinical advice; Beckman JD designed the research and provided clinical advice; Shue J analyzed the data and provided research advice; Girardi FP designed the research and provided clinical advice.
Institutional review board statement: This retrospective case series has received approval from the authors’ institutional review board.
Informed consent statement: For the patients presented in this case series, a waiver of patient informed consent and U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) authorization were sought. Information contained in this case report contains no personal identifiers to ensure patient confidentiality and protections. Under these provisions, the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at our institution provided approval of this study (IRB#2014-062).
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest concerning this article.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Federico P Girardi, MD, Spine Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, United States. email@example.com
Telephone: +1-212-6061559 Fax: +1-212-7742870
Received: January 21, 2017 Peer-review started: January 21, 2017 First decision: March 8, 2017 Revised: April 20, 2017 Accepted: May 3, 2017 Article in press: May 5, 2017 Published online: June 18, 2017
To review cases of emergent reintubation after cervical surgery.
Patients who were emergently intubated in the post-operative period following cervical surgery were identified. The patients’ prospectively documented demographic parameters, medical history and clinical symptoms were ascertained. Pre-operative radiographs were examined for the extent of their pathology. The details of the operative procedure were discerned.
Eight hundred and eighty patients received anterior- or combined anterior-posterior cervical surgery from 2008-2013. Nine patients (1.02%) required emergent reintubation. The interval between extubation to reintubation was 6.2 h [1-12]. Patients were kept intubated after reintubation for 2.3 d [2-3]. Seven patients displayed moderate postoperative edema. One patient was diagnosed with a compressive hematoma which was subsequently evacuated in the OR. Another patient was diagnosed with a pulmonary effusion and treated with diuretics. One patient received a late debridement for an infected hematoma. Six patients reported residual symptoms and three patients made a complete recovery.
Respiratory compromise is a rare but potentially life threatening complication following cervical surgery. Patients at increased risk should be monitored closely for extended periods of time post-operatively. If the airway is restored adequately in a timely manner through emergent re-intubation, the outcome of the patients is generally favorable.
Core tip: The rate of cervical spine surgery has increased over the last years. Airway compromise is a rare but potentially life threatening complication following this type of procedure. This case series represents a single institution’s experience of 9 cases requiring emergent reintubation after anterior- or combined anterior-posterior cervical spine surgery. Besides reporting patient characteristics and operative details, our approach to evaluating and treating these cases is presented. In addition the literature addressing reintubation after cervical spine surgery is reviewed.
Citation: Schroeder J, Salzmann SN, Hughes AP, Beckman JD, Shue J, Girardi FP. Emergent reintubation following elective cervical surgery: A case series. World J Orthop 2017; 8(6): 465-470
Degenerative conditions of the cervical spine result from disk degeneration and the subsequent osteophytic bone formation extending along the affected vertebrae[1-3]. The uncinate processes as well as the ligamentum flavum may hypertrophy. All of these mechanisms constitute the body’s natural response to restore stability and alignment of the cervical spine. Less commonly, cervical kyphosis, compensatory subluxation and the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament are factors which may contribute to a progression of the disease resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms.
Overall, up to 89%-95% of men and women aged 60 and above will have degenerative changes visible in their cervical spine imaging, C5-6 being the most commonly affected level[5-7]. Dependent on the degree of nerve root- and spinal cord compression, patients may present with neck pain, radiculopathy or paresthesias of the upper extremities, or signs of myelopathy such as gait- and fine motor control impairment and weakness[8,9]. In cases of myelopathy, severe radicular pain, and patients with progressive neurologic deficits, cervical spine surgery is performed as these patients generally have debilitating sequelae.
The safety profile of cervical spine surgery is high, however a mortality rate of 0.14% and an incidence of major complications of 3.93% have been associated with cervical surgery. Patient age > 74 years, a primary diagnosis of cervical spondylosis with myelopathy and large cervical procedures such as long posterior fusions or combined anterior and posterior fusion were found to be predictive of an increased risk of complications.
A more dangerous complication is breathing insufficiency, resulting in urgent reintubation. It has been reported in 0.14%-1.9% of patients undergoing cervical surgery[12-14]. Postoperative reintubation has been correlated with advanced age, chronic pulmonary disease, pre-operative hypoalbuminemia and anemia, recent weight loss, a high serum creatinine, three or more cervical levels operated on and prolonged surgical time[12-15]. As urgent reintubation is a lifesaving procedure, timely management is critical in order to avoid grave morbidities and mortalities.
We present a detailed case series of a single institution’s experience with postoperative reintubation in patients receiving anterior- or combined anterior-posterior cervical surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Data was reviewed from a prospectively maintained hospital database of 880 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery over a 5 year period (2008-2013) at a single institution. Nine patients that required emergent postoperative reintubation following previous extubation were identified.
Data was retrospectively collected on patient demographics, past surgical- and medical history, evidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis, primary diagnosis, and surgical details. Data was collected using intra-operative and discharge reports through SRS (SRSsoft, Montvale, NJ, United States). The patients prospectively documented clinical findings and the diagnostic details of their pre-operative imaging were recorded.
The incidence of emergent reintubation following anterior- or combined anterior-posterior cervical surgery was found to be 1.02%.
Detailed patient parameters are presented in Table 1. The average age of the patients was 58 [44-71]. The average BMI of the patients was 25.86 [21-29.3]. The male to female ratio was 4:5. Three patients had a history of tobacco consumption, with two patients remaining active smokers with an average number of 11.5 pack years [8-15]. The patients’ medical histories were significant for systemic heart disease in five patients, and for pulmonary disease in two patients. One patient suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, five patients had multiple systemic comorbidities. One patient’s surgical history was significant for a prior emergent posterior cervical decompression from C2-5 for a spontaneous epidural hematoma.
P-Y: Pack-years; GERD: Gastroesophageal reflux disease; BMI: Body mass index; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Initial evaluation and diagnostic studies
Five patients complained of myelopathic gait changes. Neck pain was the main complaint of four patients, with three patients each reporting additional shoulder pain or paresthesias. Two patients suffered from upper extremity weakness and numbness, whilst one patient each complained a loss of fine motor control and arm- or hand pain. 8 patients exhibited evidence of a cord signal change in their MRIs.
Initial surgical management
Operative details are presented in Table 2. The average length of surgery was 7.67 h [4.5-11.5], with an average of 3.78 cervical levels fused [2-6]. Three cases were combined anterior and posterior cervical surgeries. The average estimated intraoperative blood loss was 639 mL [150-1100]. No intra-operative complications were recorded in any of the patients. Four patients were kept intubated after completion of the case and extubated on average on the postoperative day number 2 [1-4]. Five patients were extubated at the end of the case. All patients were kept in the post-anesthesia care unit after surgery to monitor airway compromise.
Neck pain, shoulder pain, gait change, decreased fine motor control
MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.
Respiratory distress diagnosis and intervention
Details on postoperative airway management are presented in Table 3. The average interval between extubation to reintubation was 373.3 min [60-720]. The symptoms leading to a pulmonary reevaluation and emergent reintubation varied. Four patients presented with progressive onset of dyspnea, in some cases in combination with stridor, dysphagia or dysphonia. Three patients had no physical complaints but developed hypoxemia with an oxygen saturation ranging from 70%-80%. Two patients developed a spontaneous severe cough. One of the patients was still intubated and inadvertently extubated himself whilst convulsively coughing, leading to his emergent reintubation.
In general, patients were reintubated nasally after topical lidocaine using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope to allow for assessment of airway swelling and vocal cord function. Reintubations were easily performed, however, all were done by experienced attending anesthesiologists. None of the patients required tracheostomy for initial reintubation.
The patients were kept intubated after their emergent reintubation for a mean of 2.3 d [2-3]. Urgent fibroscopic ENT examination and imaging identified a compressive hematoma in one patient that was evacuated in the OR. One patient was diagnosed with pulmonary edema and subsequently desaturated and was transferred to the intensive care unit. The remaining seven patients showed no clear signs of respiratory obstruction, with only moderate pharyngeal edema being identified in diagnostic imaging. Due to the severity of their symptoms, four of the patients with this diagnosis received decadron - three of them in combination with racemic epinephrine.
The patients were followed for an average 21.7 mo [2-26.9]. Residual complaints are summarized in Table 4. One patient who was not diagnosed with a hematoma upon emergent airway reevaluation leading to reintubation required a late debridement for an infected hematoma. Three patients made a complete recovery. The remaining six patients reported residual primary complaints of neck pain, paresthesias, numbness and radicular pain. One patient reported a new onset of headaches. None of the patients complained of persistent dysphagia or dysphonia. Overall, none of the patients experienced any clinical sequelae of their reintubation.
Intermittent neck pain, radiculopathy of the right arm
Intermittent neck pain, paresthesias, headaches, numbness and paresthesias of the left thumb and index finger
In this series of 880 patients undergoing cervical surgery, the overall incidence of emergent reintubation following anterior- or combined anterior-posterior cervical surgery was 1.02%. The early signs and symptoms of airway compromise varied. Some patients developed a spontaneous severe cough, progressive dyspnea, stridor, dysphagia or dysphonia. However, some patients had no apparent physical complaints but developed hypoxemia, leading to reintubation. The timely diagnosis of the airway compromise and the subsequent management thereof resulted in a lack of longterm morbidity and mortality related to the complication. Pharyngeal edema was the leading pathology causing postoperative airway compromise.
Postoperative airway compromise is a rare complication of anterior- or combined anterior-posterior cervical surgery. Nandyala et al examined 8648 patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. They found that 0.62% of patients analyzed in their study who had undergone cervical spine surgery required prolonged ventilation. An additional 0.64% was reintubated postoperatively. Emergent reintubation was correlated with advanced age and a greater comorbidity burden, demonstrating similar findings as our case series. Marquez-Lara et al examined a patient sample which underwent anterior cervical surgery from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. They reported an incidence of reintubation of 0.56% and reaffirmed the correlation of reintubation with old age and an increased comorbidity burden. Additionally, they reported a correlation with fusions of three or more levels. Hart et al experienced a high postoperative incidence of airway edema requiring continuous intubation or emergent reintubation in 45% of cervical surgeries crossing the cervicothoracic junction. All but one of the patients presented here demonstrate at least one of the risk factors reported in the literature such as multi-level fusions, pulmonary disease, advanced age or prolonged surgical time[12-15].
A variety of conditions have been implicated as the cause of postoperative airway compromise in cervical surgery. Emery et al presented a series of seven patients who required emergent reintubation following upper-airway compromise after multi-level corpectomies for myelopathy with a mortality rate of 28.6%. They believed that the cause of the conditions was predominantly hypopharyngeal and supraglottic swelling. Additional studies have discussed their experience with retropharyngeal postoperative hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid collection, angioedema and hardware dislodgement as causes of respiratory distress[18-22]. The point in time at which the airway compromise occurs has been described as a possible indicator of the etiology. Wound hematomas and pharyngeal edema normally occur within the first hours after the procedure, while respiratory compromise after three days indicates pathologies including abscess formation, cerebrospinal fluid leak or hardware failure. An optimization of inter-departmental cooperation and the capability of emergent imaging may expedite the diagnosis, resulting in a timely intervention and re-establishment of airway control. In our case series, the diagnosis was made with the help of ear, nose, and throat specialists evaluating the patients combined with an emergent intubation by trained anesthesiologists. Seventy-seven point seven percent of the patients requiring reintubation were subsequently diagnosed with a radiographically not impressive pharyngeal edema. This finding is concurrent with the reports found during our review of the literature.
Few studies discuss the treatment or prevention of airway compromise. Hart et al examined the effect of the implementation of a fluid management protocol in cervical surgery crossing the cervicothoracic junction. They found that none of the patients who received limited intraoperative fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and a maintenance of constant blood pressure after the implementation of the protocol experienced postoperative airway compromise vs the 45% of patients who had experienced complaints previously. We found that our strict adherence to hospital protocol of keeping the patient in the step down unit for 24 h, uninterrupted postoperative monitoring of the vital signs of the patient, as well as continuous regular examinations of the patient contributed to prompt airway management resulting in a lack of mortality amongst these patients.
Sabaté et al examined the implications of postoperative pulmonary complications and reported an increased incidence of mortality, length of stay, readmissions, and costs. Our case series gives a limited account of the clinical progression of the patients as well as long term follow up examining the clinical sequelae of their complication. It lacks an analysis of risk factors or a prospective examination of the pathophysiology of the complication. Given the overall increases in cervical surgery over the past years due in part to the aging population and novel technological developments, the clinical as well as the economic burden of this potentially life-threatening complication merits more detailed examination. This is also important since an increasing number of cervical spine surgeries are being performed in the outpatient setting[26,27].
In conclusion, careful monitoring, timely intervention, and a standardized protocol of intervention in patients with respiratory failure after cervical surgery can provide patients with a favorable long term outcome. Extended care in a monitored environment is recommended for multi-level anterior and anterior posterior complex cervical cases.
The rate of cervical spine surgery has increased over the last years. Airway compromise is a rare but potentially life threatening complication following this type of procedure.
There is a paucity of literature on incidence, risk factors and management of postoperative airway compromise following cervical spine surgery.
Innovations and breakthroughs
The incidence of emergent reintubation following anterior- or combined anterior-posterior surgery was found to be 1.02%.
Patients at increased risk should be monitored closely for extended periods of time post-operatively.
The authors present a detailed paper on reintubation after cervical surgery. This is an important issue as reintubation frequency is in literature less than 1% of the cases. They give valuable information of the seven cases in several tables, combining that important information with a very concise paper, ending in useful conclusions. Therefore this is a very interesting, well-written and succinct paper.
Manuscript source: Invited manuscript
Specialty type: Orthopedics
Country of origin: United States
Peer-review report classification
Grade A (Excellent): A, A
Grade B (Very good): B
Grade C (Good): 0
Grade D (Fair): 0
Grade E (Poor): E
P- Reviewer: Guerado E, Higa K, Serhan H, Yang Z S- Editor: Song XX L- Editor: A E- Editor: Lu YJ
Parke WW. Correlative anatomy of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1988;13:831-837.
McCormack BM, Weinstein PR. Cervical spondylosis. An update.West J Med. 1996;165:43-51.
Wilkinson M. The morbid anatomy of cervical spondylosis and myelopathy.Brain. 1960;83:589-617.
Emery SE. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: diagnosis and treatment.J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2001;9:376-388.
Gore DR, Sepic SB, Gardner GM. Roentgenographic findings of the cervical spine in asymptomatic people.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1986;11:521-524.
Boden SD, McCowin PR, Davis DO, Dina TS, Mark AS, Wiesel S. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the cervical spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990;72:1178-1184.
Matsumoto M, Okada E, Ichihara D, Chiba K, Toyama Y, Fujiwara H, Momoshima S, Nishiwaki Y, Takahata T. Modic changes in the cervical spine: prospective 10-year follow-up study in asymptomatic subjects.J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012;94:678-683.
Karpova A, Arun R, Kalsi-Ryan S, Massicotte EM, Kopjar B, Fehlings MG. Do quantitative magnetic resonance imaging parameters correlate with the clinical presentation and functional outcomes after surgery in cervical spondylotic myelopathy? A prospective multicenter study.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014;39:1488-1497.
Wilson JR, Barry S, Fischer DJ, Skelly AC, Arnold PM, Riew KD, Shaffrey CI, Traynelis VC, Fehlings MG. Frequency, timing, and predictors of neurological dysfunction in the nonmyelopathic patient with cervical spinal cord compression, canal stenosis, and/or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:S37-S54.
Matz PG, Anderson PA, Holly LT, Groff MW, Heary RF, Kaiser MG, Mummaneni PV, Ryken TC, Choudhri TF, Vresilovic EJ. The natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11:104-111.
Wang MC, Chan L, Maiman DJ, Kreuter W, Deyo RA. Complications and mortality associated with cervical spine surgery for degenerative disease in the United States.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:342-347.
Marquez-Lara A, Nandyala SV, Fineberg SJ, Singh K. Incidence, outcomes, and mortality of reintubation after anterior cervical fusion.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014;39:134-139.
Rujirojindakul P, Geater AF, McNeil EB, Vasinanukorn P, Prathep S, Asim W, Naklongdee J. Risk factors for reintubation in the post-anaesthetic care unit: a case-control study.Br J Anaesth. 2012;109:636-642.
Sagi HC, Beutler W, Carroll E, Connolly PJ. Airway complications associated with surgery on the anterior cervical spine.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:949-953.
Nandyala SV, Marquez-Lara A, Park DK, Hassanzadeh H, Sankaranarayanan S, Noureldin M, Singh K. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of postoperative airway management after cervical spine surgery.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014;39:E557-E563.
Hart RA, Dupaix JP, Rusa R, Kane MS, Volpi JD. Reduction of airway complications with fluid management protocol in patients undergoing cervical decompression and fusion across the cervicothoracic junction.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:E1135-E1140.
Emery SE, Smith MD, Bohlman HH. Upper-airway obstruction after multilevel cervical corpectomy for myelopathy.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1991;73:544-551.
Sethi R, Tandon MS, Ganjoo P. Neck hematoma causing acute airway and hemodynamic compromise after anterior cervical spine surgery.J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2008;20:69-70.
Penberthy A, Roberts N. Recurrent acute upper airway obstruction after anterior cervical fusion.Anaesth Intensive Care. 1998;26:305-307.
Krnacik MJ, Heggeness MH. Severe angioedema causing airway obstruction after anterior cervical surgery.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22:2188-2190.
Wong DT, Fehlings MG, Massicotte EM. Anterior cervical screw extrusion leading to acute upper airway obstruction: case report.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:E683-E686.
Riew KD, Sethi NS, Devney J, Goette K, Choi K. Complications of buttress plate stabilization of cervical corpectomy.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999;24:2404-2410.
Swann MC, Hoes KS, Aoun SG, McDonagh DL. Postoperative complications of spine surgery.Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2016;30:103-120.
Sabaté S, Mazo V, Canet J. Predicting postoperative pulmonary complications: implications for outcomes and costs.Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2014;27:201-209.
Oglesby M, Fineberg SJ, Patel AA, Pelton MA, Singh K. Epidemiological trends in cervical spine surgery for degenerative diseases between 2002 and 2009.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:1226-1232.
Epstein NE. Cervical spine surgery performed in ambulatory surgical centers: Are patients being put at increased risk?Surg Neurol Int. 2016;7:S686-S691.
Baird EO, Egorova NN, McAnany SJ, Qureshi SA, Hecht AC, Cho SK. National trends in outpatient surgical treatment of degenerative cervical spine disease.Glob Spine J. 2014;4:143-149.