Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Orthop. Apr 18, 2015; 6(3): 351-359
Published online Apr 18, 2015. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v6.i3.351
Table 1 Positioning complications and risk factors
ComplicationRisk factors
Ophthalmological complications
ION[14]Obesity, male sex, Wilson frame use, longer anesthetic duration, greater estimated blood loss, increased ratio of crystalloid to colloid
Posterior ION[13]Blood loss greater than 4 L, persistent relative hypotension
Anterior ION[16]Atherosclerosis, diabetes
Central retinal artery occlusion[5,13]External compression of the eye
Cortical blindness[13]Profound hypotension, prolonged hypoxia, cardiac arrest, thromboembolism
Neurologic complications
Acute cervical myelopathy[20]Cervical spondylosis, neck extension, paralytic anesthesia
Brachial plexopathy[21]Extension, external rotation, and abduction of the arm, ipsilateral rotation and lateral flexion of neck, shoulder braces
Ulnar nerve palsy[30]Obesity, inadequate elbow padding
Myocutaneous complications
Compartment syndrome[34-36]Padding directly over the compartment, obesity
Pressure ulcers[37,38]Procedure duration, advanced age, obesity, steroid administration
Femoral head avascular necrosis[42]Pressure over the groin, hypotension