Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Orthop. Mar 18, 2019; 10(3): 123-127
Published online Mar 18, 2019. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v10.i3.123
Table 1 Potential therapies of gut microbiota, proposed mechanisms of action, and subsequent immunological and metabolic effects
Proposed therapyMechanism of actionEffect on GM
Antibiotics supplemented by fecal transplantBroad spectrum antibiotics clear out dysregulated GM Fecal transplant with Bacteroides and immunoprotective microbiota (i.e., Lactobacilli) suppresses inflammatory responseRemoval of inflammatory inducing bacteria species replaced with immunoprotective flora, normalizes GM and reduces inflammatory response
Prebiotic supplementationPromote growth of bacterial species that induce fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates, increases SCFAs, and decreases pH of GM and increases calcium absorptionDecreased pH promotes growth of bacteria less likely to induce inflammatory response, while SCFAs promote anti-inflammatory effects systemically Decreased pH and increased calcium absorption correlated with increased bone density
Probiotic supplementationSupplementation by Lactobacilli reuteri, Bacilis subtilis and Bacteroidetes promote immunoprotective response in gut Reduced inflammatory response should reduce cytokine storm and active reduction in bone densitySupplementation of these bacteria to promote a normal GM, immunoprotective effects: IL-10