Published online Jul 18, 2017. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v8.i7.524
Peer-review started: January 19, 2017
First decision: April 14, 2017
Revised: April 21, 2017
Accepted: May 3, 2017
Article in press: May 5, 2017
Published online: July 18, 2017
Core tip: Intraoperative radiation exposure is a significant concern for patients, surgeons, and operative room staff during spine surgery. All surgeons should practice general radiation safety techniques including shielding, distance, and fluoroscopic dose reduction. New imaging modalities and spinal navigation systems have also been developed to mitigate radiation exposure risk. These modalities include CT-based techniques such as Isocentric Three-Dimensional C-arms and O-Arms. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging has also been adapted from the neurosurgical field and is another developing imaging technique. Further research is required to overcome the limitations of these novel technologies in regards to costs and training requirements.