Published online Jun 18, 2016. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v7.i6.370
Peer-review started: January 12, 2016
First decision: March 1, 2016
Revised: April 7, 2016
Accepted: April 21, 2016
Article in press: April 22, 2016
Published online: June 18, 2016
Core tip: Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder due to deficiency of factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B) resulting in insufficient thrombin generation leading to recurrent intra-articular hemorrhages (hemarthroses). Prevention of hemarthroses with intravenous infusions of the deficient protein from infancy to adulthood (primary prophylaxis) should be considered to achieve optimal outcomes. If factor replacement therapy (FRT) is insufficient, or if patients are not adherent to the prescribed regimen, recurrent hemarthroses results in chondrocyte apoptosis (cartilage degeneration) and hypertrophy of the synovium (synovitis). Many surgical interventions are available for the knee joint. For example, to treat synovitis recalcitrant to FRT, there are two primary orthopedic modalities: Radiosynovectomy and arthroscopic synovectomy. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee.