Published online Mar 18, 2015. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v6.i2.161
Peer-review started: December 31, 2013
First decision: January 20, 2014
Revised: November 16, 2014
Accepted: December 29, 2014
Article in press: December 31, 2014
Published online: March 18, 2015
Core tip: Competitive athletes and high-demand military servicemembers are at significant risk for lateral ankle instability during at-risk activity, particularly in the presence of certain modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. In conjunction with semirigid ankle bracing, functional rehabilitation protocols emphasizing neuromuscular coordination, peroneal strengthening, and proprioceptive training are effective for the majority of patients with acute ankle sprain. However, with chronic lateral ankle instability unresponsive to conservative measures, anatomic ligamentous repair or reconstruction reliably restores active patients to full athletic function. Prophylactic bracing and targeted physical therapy may also be considered in selected, high-risk cohorts.