Published online Nov 18, 2014. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v5.i5.566
Revised: April 30, 2014
Accepted: July 12, 2014
Published online: November 18, 2014
Core tip: The synovium is the soft tissue lining diarthodial joints, tendon sheaths and bursae. Arthroscopic synovial biopsy techniques have an established safety record. Synovial biopsy has been of critical importance in understanding disease pathogenesis and mechanisms of action of targeted therapies; it has been invaluable as a research tool in proof of concept studies to assess mechanisms and efficacy of new therapies. It also has diagnostic value when synovial fluid analysis is non-contributory.