Published online Apr 18, 2014. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v5.i2.146
Revised: December 29, 2013
Accepted: January 15, 2014
Published online: April 18, 2014
Core tip: This paper is a review article examining available evidence on the anatomy, function and common variation in the sesmoids of the great toe. There is discussion of the presentation, history, examination, investigations and subsequent management of the patient with a painful sesamoid. We discuss the role of operative intervention. We recommend early use of magnetic resonance imaging and discussion with a musculoskeletal radiologist to assist in diagnosis. Conservative management should be the first line in most cases.