Investigational growth factors utilized in animal models of spinal fusion: Systematic review
Ethan Cottrill, A Karim Ahmed, Noah Lessing, Zachary Pennington, Wataru Ishida, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Sheng-fu Lo, Christina Holmes, Nicholas Theodore, Daniel M Sciubba, Timothy F Witham, Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States
Elizabeth Howell, C Rory Goodwin, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States
Author contributions: Cottrill E, Ahmed AK, Lessing N, Pennington Z, Howell E: Conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. Ishida W, Perdomo-Pantoja A, Lo SF, Holmes C, Goodwin CR, Theodore N, Sciubba DM: Conception and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, supervision. Witham TF: Conception and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, obtaining funding, supervision. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript as submitted.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Goodwin CR: Grants from NIH/NINDS K12 Physician Scientist Award, North Carolina Spine Society, and Burroughs Wellcome Funds; all outside the submitted work. Lo SF: Research support from Chordoma Foundation, Grant from AO Spine; all outside the submitted work. Sciubba DM: Consulting from Baxter, DePuy Synthes, Globus, K2M, Medical Device Business Services, Medtronic, NuVasive, and Stryker; Speaking/Teaching from Globus Medical, Medtronic, and DePuy Synthes; all outside the submitted work. Theodore N: Royalties from Globus Medical, Depuy Synthes; Stock in Globus Medical; Consulting from Globus Medical; Scientific Advisory Board from Globus Medical; Fellowship Support from AO North America; all outside the submitted work. Witham TF: Grants from Eli Lilly Company and the Gordon and Marilyn Macklin Foundation.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Ethan Cottrill, MSc, Research Scientist, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States. email@example.com
Received: October 22, 2018
Peer-review started: October 23, 2018
First decision: November 15, 2018
Revised: January 3, 2019
Accepted: January 26, 2019
Article in press: January 26, 2019
Published online: April 18, 2019