Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Orthop. Apr 18, 2016; 7(4): 202-217
Published online Apr 18, 2016. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v7.i4.202
Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport
Nicole J Chimera, Meghan Warren
Nicole J Chimera, Department of Athletic Training, Daemen College, Amherst, NY 14226, United States
Meghan Warren, Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States
Author contributions: Chimera NJ and Warren M contributed equally to writing and revising this manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Chimera NJ and Warren M have no conflicts of interest related to this publication.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Nicole J Chimera, PhD, ATC, CSCS, Department Chair and Program Director, Department of Athletic Training, Daemen College, 4380 Main Street, Amherst, NY 14226, United States. nchimera@daemen.edu
Telephone: +1-716-8398413 Fax: +1-716-8398314
Received: August 7, 2015
Peer-review started: August 11, 2015
First decision: October 16, 2015
Revised: October 28, 2015
Accepted: December 29, 2015
Article in press: January 4, 2016
Published online: April 18, 2016

Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools.

Keywords: Functional Movement Screen, Y Balance Test, Star excursion balance test, Tuck jump analysis

Core tip: Clinical movement screening tests like the Functional Movement Screen and Y Balance Test have gained a lot of popularity in the clinical setting as a tool to predict injury and guide injury prevention programs/training. However, clinicians should be aware that various factors like sex differences, previous injury history, and sport participation can influence the accuracy of these screening tests; therefore, it is important to evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of these tools before implementing them into clinical practice.