Published online Feb 18, 2016. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v7.i2.82
Peer-review started: June 5, 2015
First decision: August 16, 2015
Revised: September 5, 2015
Accepted: December 1, 2015
Article in press: December 2, 2015
Published online: February 18, 2016
The influences and mechanisms of the physiology, rupture and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on kinematics and clinical outcomes have been investigated in many biomechanical and clinical studies over the last several decades. The knee is a complex joint with shifting contact points, pressures and axes that are affected when a ligament is injured. The ACL, as one of the intra-articular ligaments, has a strong influence on the resulting kinematics. Often, other meniscal or ligamentous injuries accompany ACL ruptures and further deteriorate the resulting kinematics and clinical outcomes. Knowing the surgical options, anatomic relations and current evidence to restore ACL function and considering the influence of concomitant injuries on resulting kinematics to restore full function can together help to achieve an optimal outcome.
Core tip: This review of literature summarizes the influences and mechanisms of the physiology, rupture and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament on kinematics and clinical outcomes. The major focuses are on the resulting joint kinematics after rupture and reconstruction and on biomechanics of graft fixation.