Published online Sep 18, 2014. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v5.i4.412
Revised: March 23, 2014
Accepted: June 10, 2014
Published online: September 18, 2014
Adult patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip develop secondary osteoarthritis and eventually end up with total hip arthroplasty (THA) at younger age. Because of altered anatomy of dysplastic hips, THA in these patients represents technically demanding procedure. Distorted anatomy of the acetabulum and proximal femur together with conjoined leg length discrepancy present major challenges during performing THA in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip. In addition, most patients are at younger age, therefore, soft tissue balance is of great importance (especially the need to preserve the continuity of abductors) to maximise postoperative functional result. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for THA in dysplastic hips, their advantages and disadvantages. For acetabular reconstruction following techniques are described: Standard metal augments (prefabricated), Custom made acetabular augments (3D printing), Roof reconstruction with vascularized fibula, Roof reconstruction with pedicled iliac graft, Roof reconstruction with autologous bone graft, Roof reconstruction with homologous bone graft, Roof reconstruction with auto/homologous spongious bone, Reinforcement ring with the hook in combination with autologous graft augmentation, Cranial positioning of the acetabulum, Medial protrusion technique (cotyloplasty) with chisel, Medial protrusion technique (cotyloplasty) with reaming, Cotyloplasty without spongioplasty. For femoral reconstruction following techniques were described: Distraction with external fixator, Femoral shortening through a modified lateral approach, Transtrochanteric osteotomies, Paavilainen osteotomy, Lesser trochanter osteotomy, Double-chevron osteotomy, Subtrochanteric osteotomies, Diaphyseal osteotomies, Distal femoral osteotomies. At the end we present author’s treatment method of choice: for acetabulum we perform cotyloplasty leaving only paper-thin medial wall, which we break during acetabular cup impacting. For femoral side first we peel of all rotators and posterior part of gluteus medius and vastus lateralis from greater trochanter on the very thin flake of bone. This method allows us to adequately shorten proximal femoral stump, with possibility of additional resection of proximal femur. Furthermore, several advantages and disadvantages of this procedure are also discussed.
Core tip: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in adult patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip is technically demanding procedure. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for THA in dysplastic hips, their advantages and drawbacks, ending with the author’s treatment method of choice.