Brief Article
Copyright ©2012 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.
World J Orthop. Jan 18, 2012; 3(1): 5-9
Published online Jan 18, 2012. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v3.i1.5
Analyses of possible risk factors for subacromial impingement syndrome
Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich, Anucha Kapkird
Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich, Anucha Kapkird, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
Author contributions: Tangtrakulwanich B conceived and designed the study, performed the analysis and interpretation of data and prepared the manuscript; Kapkird A participated in data gathering. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Correspondence to: Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich, MD, PhD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand.
Telephone: +66-074-451601 Fax: +66-074-212915
Received: September 28, 2011
Revised: December 15, 2011
Accepted: January 7, 2012
Published online: January 18, 2012

AIM: To evaluate the association between various risk factors, including sleeping position, and impingement syndrome. Impingement syndrome is the most common cause of shoulder problems. The pathogenesis of this problem is still debated these days.

METHODS: This was a case control study conducted at the outpatient clinic of Songklanakarind hospital. Data regarding history, physical examination and radiographic evaluations using supraspinatous outlet views were obtained from all patients with clinically suspected impingement syndrome. The diagnoses of impingement syndrome were confirmed by a xylocaine subacromial injection test. All patients were interviewed concerning their usual sleeping position, which was categorized into supine, decubitus, prone and undetermined. Radiographs were evaluated to determine the shape of the acromion, which was divided into 3 types: flat, curved and hook. We used logistic regression analysis to determine the association between risk factors and outcome.

RESULTS: The study group included 111 patients with impingement syndrome and 191 healthy volunteers as a control group. The mean age was about 50 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 24 kg/m2 in both groups. The most common shape of the acromion was flat (84.5%), followed by curved (10.7%) and hook (4.8%). We found the 4 independent risk factors affecting impingement syndrome were smoking status, occupation, acromion shape and sleeping position. Patients who currently smoked had a 6.8 times greater risk of impingement syndrome compared to non-smokers (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 1.2-39) and government officers had a 6.3 times increased risk compared to rubber tappers (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 1.3-30.3). Patients with a hook type acromion had 6.2 times the risk of flat type (OR 6.2, 95% CI: 1.1-35) and patients who slept in the decubitus position had 3.7 times the risk of those who slept in the supine position (OR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.2-11.6). No significant associations were found between age, sex, BMI, sports activity and impingement syndrome.

CONCLUSION: Independent risk factors affecting impingement syndrome are current smoker, government officer, a hook-type acromion and the decubitus sleeping position.

Keywords: Smoking, Decubitus, Impingement syndrome