Published online Sep 18, 2023. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v14.i9.682
Peer-review started: May 12, 2023
First decision: July 19, 2023
Revised: July 26, 2023
Accepted: August 7, 2023
Article in press: August 7, 2023
Published online: September 18, 2023
Total hip arthroplasty is a common surgical treatment for elderly patients with osteoporosis, particularly in postmenopausal women. In such cases, highly porous acetabular components are a favorable option in achieving osseointegration. However, further discussion is needed if use of such acetabular com
To determine the features of osseointegration of two different types of titanium implants [3-dimensional (3D)-printed and plasma-coated titanium implants] in bone tissue of a distal metaphysis in a rat femur model.
This study was performed on 20 white male laboratory rats weighing 300-350 g aged 6 mo. Rats were divided into two groups of 10 animals, which had two different types of implants were inserted into a hole defect (2 × 3 mm) in the distal metaphysis of the femur: Group I: 3D-printed titanium implant (highly porous); Group II: Plasma-coated titanium implant. After 45 and 90 d following surgery, the rats were sacrificed, and their implanted femurs were extracted for histological examination. The relative perimeter (%) of bone trabeculae [bone-implant contact (BIC%)] and bone marrow surrounding the titanium implants was measured.
Trabecular bone tissue was formed on the 45th day after implantation around the implants regardless of their type. 45 d after surgery, group I (3D-printed titanium implant) and group II (plasma-coated titanium implant) did not differ in BIC% (83.51 ± 8.5 vs 84.12 ± 1 .73; P = 0.838). After 90 d, the BIC% was higher in group I (87.04 ± 6.99 vs 81.24 ± 7.62; P = 0.049), compared to group II. The relative perimeter of the bone marrow after 45 d did not differ between groups and was 16.49% ± 8.58% for group I, and 15.88% ± 1.73% for group II. Futhermore, after 90 d, in group I the relative perimeter of bone marrow was 1.4 times smaller (12.96 ± 6.99 vs 18.76 ± 7.62; P = 0.049) compared to the relative perimeter of bone marrow in group II.
The use of a highly porous titanium implant, manufactured with 3D printing, for acetabular components provides increased osseointegration compared to a plasma-coated titanium implant.
Core Tip: The use of porous titanium materials was shown to be the most favorable solution for osseointegration for total hip arthroplasty, especially in the case of osteoporosis. Is the use of highly porous acetabular components justified under the condition of normal bone mass? We conducted a study on rats, in which we compared the osseointegration of 3-dimensional (3D)-printed or plasma-coated titanium implants into femoral bone defect by assessing the relative perimeter (%) of bone trabeculae. The highly porous titanium implant, manufactured with 3-dimensional printing, for acetabular components provides increased osseointegration compared to a plasma-coated titanium implant.