Published online Apr 18, 2021. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v12.i4.214
Peer-review started: September 10, 2020
First decision: January 27, 2021
Revised: February 1, 2021
Accepted: March 11, 2021
Article in press: March 11, 2021
Published online: April 18, 2021
Today, biological fixation of uncemented press-fit acetabular components plays an important role in total hip arthroplasty. Long-term stable fixation of these implants depends on the osseointegration of the acetabular cup bone tissue into the acetabular cup implant, and their ability to withstand functional loads.
To compare the strength of bone-implant osseointegration of four types of porous metal implants in normal and osteoporotic bone in rabbits.
The study was performed in 50 female California rabbits divided into non-ovariectomized (non-OVX) and ovariectomized groups (OVX) at 6 mo of age. Rabbits were sacrificed 8 wk after the implantation of four biomaterials [TTM, CONCELOC, Zimmer Biomet's Trabecular Metal (TANTALUM), and ATLANT] in a 5-mm diameter defect created in the left femur. A biomechanical evaluation of the femur was carried out by testing implant breakout force. The force was gradually increased until complete detachment of the implant from the bone occurred.
The breakout force needed for implant detachment was significantly higher in the non-OVX group, compared with the OVX group for all implants (TANTALUM, 194.7 ± 6.1 N vs 181.3 ± 2.8 N; P = 0.005; CONCELOC, 190.8 ± 3.6 N vs 180.9 ± 6.6 N; P = 0.019; TTM, 186.3 ± 1.8 N vs 172.0 N ± 11.0 N; P = 0.043; and ATLANT, 104.9 ± 7.0 N vs 78.9 N ± 4.5 N; P = 0.001). In the OVX group, The breakout forces in TANTALUM, TTM, and CONCELOC did not differ significantly (P = 0.066). The breakout force for ATLANT in the OVX group was lower by a factor of 2.3 compared with TANTALUM and CONCELOC, and by 2.2 compared with TTM (P = 0.001). In the non-OVX group, the breakout force for ATLANT was significantly different from all other implants, with a reduction in fixation strength by a factor of 1.9 (P = 0.001).
TANTALUM, TTM, and CONCELOC had equal bone-implant osseointegration in healthy and in osteoporotic bone. ATLANT had significantly decreased osseointegration (P = 0.001) in healthy and in osteoporotic bone.
Core Tip: In an in vivo model of osteoporosis, it was found that some types of porous acetabular components are more compatible with osteoporotic bone. The study results can help to select the right choice of acetabular components for hip replacement in patients with low bone mass.