Case Control Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Oncol. Oct 10, 2016; 7(5): 395-405
Published online Oct 10, 2016. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v7.i5.395
Cigarette smoking, dietary habits and genetic polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP1A1 metabolic genes: A case-control study in oncohematological diseases
María Belén Cerliani, Walter Pavicic, Juan Antonio Gili, Graciela Klein, Silvia Saba, Silvina Richard
María Belén Cerliani, Walter Pavicic, Silvina Richard, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (CIC, UNLP, CONICET), La Plata, Buenos Aires B1906APO, Argentina
Juan Antonio Gili, Laboratorio de Epidemiología Genética (ECLAMC, CEMIC, CONICET, CABA), Buenos Aires C1431FWO, Argentina
Graciela Klein, Silvia Saba, Unidad de Diagnóstico, Tratamiento y Sostén de Enfermedades Hematológicas, Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Rossi, La Plata, Buenos Aires B1902AVG, Argentina
Author contributions: Cerliani MB and Richard S designed the research; Cerliani MB, Klein G and Saba S recruited the patients, and collected material and data from patients; Cerliani MB performed the assays; Cerliani MB and Gili JA performed the statistical analyses; Cerliani MB, Pavicic W and Richard S wrote the paper.
Supported by The “Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas” (PIP-634 to Richard S and Scholarship Grant to Cerliani MB); and the “Instituto Nacional del Cáncer” (grant No. R.M. 493: Asistencia financiera a proyectos de investigación en cáncer de origen nacional II, to Pavicic W).
Institutional review board statement: The study was reviewed and approved by the “Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular” Institutional Review Board.
Informed consent statement: All study participants provided informed written consent prior to study enrollment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: No conflicts of interests.
Data sharing statement: Technical appendix and dataset available from the corresponding author at The presented data are anonymized.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Silvina Richard, PhD, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (CIC, UNLP, CONICET), Camino General Belgrano y 526, La Plata, Buenos Aires B1906APO, Argentina.
Telephone: +54-0221-4210112 Fax: +54-0221-4210112
Received: June 24, 2016
Peer-review started: June 24, 2016
First decision: August 5, 2016
Revised: September 7, 2016
Accepted: September 21, 2016
Article in press: September 23, 2016
Published online: October 10, 2016

To analyze the association between oncohematological diseases and GSTT1/GSTM1/CYP1A1 polymorphisms, dietary habits and smoking, in an argentine hospital-based case-control study.


This hospital-based case-control study involved 125 patients with oncohematological diseases and 310 control subjects. A questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and information about habits. Blood samples were collected, and DNA was extracted using salting out methods. Deletions in GSTT1 and GSTM1 (null genotypes) were addressed by PCR. CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were calculated to estimate the association between each variable studied and oncohematological disease.


Women showed lower risk of disease compared to men (OR 0.52, 95%CI: 0.34-0.82, P = 0.003). Higher levels of education (> 12 years) were significantly associated with an increased risk, compared to complete primary school or less (OR 3.68, 95%CI: 1.82-7.40, P < 0.001 adjusted for age and sex). With respect to tobacco, none of the smoking categories showed association with oncohematological diseases. Regarding dietary habits, consumption of grilled/barbecued meat 3 or more times per month showed significant association with an increased risk of disease (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.08-2.75, P = 0.02). Daily consumption of coffee also was associated with an increased risk (OR 1.77, 95%CI: 1.03-3.03, P = 0.03). Results for GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms showed no significant association with oncohematological diseases. When analyzing the interaction between polymorphisms and tobacco smoking or dietary habits, no statistically significant associations that modify disease risk were found.


We reported an increased risk of oncohematological diseases associated with meat and coffee intake. We did not find significant associations between genetic polymorphisms and blood cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Oncohematological disease, Case-control study, Lifestyle, Diet, Tobacco, Xenobiotic metabolizing genes, GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1

Core tip: Cancer is considered as a multi-factorial disease. Except certain genetic abnormalities, viruses, environmental exposures and chemotherapeutic agents, it is not well defined which are the risk factors for these diseases (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, among others). Here, we analyzed lifestyle and genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for blood cancer. We reported an increased risk of disease associated with meat and coffee intake. No significant associations were found between metabolic gene polymorphisms and disease. Our study offers relevant insights into diverse aspects of oncohematological diseases etiology, particularly genes and environmental factors, in an Argentinean population.