Letter to the Editor
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Oncol. Feb 24, 2024; 15(2): 356-359
Published online Feb 24, 2024. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v15.i2.356
Bridging the gap: Predicting brain metastasis in breast cancer
Daniela Gonsalves, Raquel Ciérvide, Felipe Couñago
Daniela Gonsalves, Felipe Couñago, Department of Radiation Oncology, GenesisCare Madrid, Madrid 28043, Spain
Daniela Gonsalves, Felipe Couñago, Facultad de Medicina Salud y Deporte, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid 28670, Spain
Raquel Ciérvide, Department of Radiation Oncology, HM Hospitales, Madrid 28050, Spain
Author contributions: Gonsalves D, Ciervide R, Couñago F contributed equally to this work; All authors have read and approve the final.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Felipe Couñago, PhD, Director, Department of Radiation Oncology, GenesisCare Madrid, Modesto La Fuente, Madrid 28010, Spain. fcounago@gmail.com
Received: November 29, 2023
Peer-review started: November 29, 2023
First decision: December 22, 2023
Revised: January 4, 2024
Accepted: January 30, 2024
Article in press: January 30, 2024
Published online: February 24, 2024

Chen et al explored clinicopathological features and prognostic factors, revealing advanced tumor stage, lung metastases, HER-2 overexpression, and triple-negative status as key contributors. Recent research connects astrocytes' role in brain metastasis with signaling pathways and the impact of Trastuzumab on HER-2 tumor survival. Factors such as positive HER2 status, lack of estrogen receptor expression, and liver metastasis are identified as additional risk factors. The routine use of magnetic resonance imaging, insights into gene mutations associated with metastasis, and the role of radiotherapy, including prophylaxis possibilities, is controversial in clinical practice. Understanding these risk factors in a multidisciplinary collaboration is precise for local treatments and targeted therapies, particularly for HER2+ tumors, impacting directly on longer survival.

Keywords: Brain metastases, Breast cancer, Clinicopathological features, High-risk factors

Core Tip: Based on an institutional analysis of risk factors to develop brain metastases in a setting of breast cancer patients, we have conducted a brief review of the literature on the known risk factors as well as the various strategies that could contribute to improving disease control and survival prospects for these patients.