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World J Clin Oncol. Mar 24, 2022; 13(3): 186-199
Published online Mar 24, 2022. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v13.i3.186
From Helicobacter pylori infection to gastric cancer: Current evidence on the immune response
Vinícius Lima de Souza Gonçalves, Maria Luísa Cordeiro Santos, Marcel Silva Luz, Hanna Santos Marques, Breno Bittencourt de Brito, Filipe Antônio França da Silva, Cláudio Lima Souza, Márcio Vasconcelos Oliveira, Fabrício Freire de Melo
Vinícius Lima de Souza Gonçalves, Hanna Santos Marques, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus Vitória da Conquista, Vitória da Conquista 45083-900, Bahia, Brazil
Maria Luísa Cordeiro Santos, Marcel Silva Luz, Breno Bittencourt de Brito, Filipe Antônio França da Silva, Cláudio Lima Souza, Márcio Vasconcelos Oliveira, Fabrício Freire de Melo, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil
Author contributions: All authors equally contributed to this paper with conception and design of the study, literature review and analysis, drafting and critical revision and editing and final approval of the final version.
Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict of interest associated with any of the senior author or other coauthors contributed their efforts in this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Fabrício Freire de Melo, PhD, Professor, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Rua Hormindo Barros, 58, Quadra 17, Lote 58, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil. freiremelo@yahoo.com.br
Received: March 14, 2021
Peer-review started: March 14, 2021
First decision: July 18, 2021
Revised: July 31, 2021
Accepted: February 15, 2022
Article in press: February 15, 2022
Published online: March 24, 2022
Abstract

Gastric cancer (GC) is the result of a multifactorial process whose main components are infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), bacterial virulence factors, host immune response and environmental factors. The development of the neoplastic microenvironment also depends on genetic and epigenetic changes in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which results in deregulation of cell signaling pathways and apoptosis process. This review summarizes the main aspects of the pathogenesis of GC and the immune response involved in chronic inflammation generated by H. pylori.

Keywords: Gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, Chronic inflammation, Host immune response

Core Tip: Understanding the factors related to the host, infection by Helicobacter pylori and the mechanisms of tumor evasion are fundamental to understand the development of gastric cancer (GC). However, in the face of a complex immune environment, there are still many questions to be answered. Thus, we highlight in this work the main aspects related to GC, from infection and gastric microenvironment to immune response.