Published online Aug 15, 2016. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v7.i3.242
Peer-review started: April 28, 2016
First decision: June 16, 2016
Revised: July 1, 2016
Accepted: July 20, 2016
Article in press: July 22, 2016
Published online: August 15, 2016
Core tip: Hepatocellular carcinoma is on the rise and is associated with high mortality. Cancer immunology is an expanding field with promise. This review will summarize the current concepts in the immunobiology of hepatocarcinogenesis including the interplay of a variety of immune cells involved in anti-tumor and pro-tumor effects. Oncogenic pathways currently known to effect hepatocarcinogenesis will also be discussed. Finally, currently tested and developed treatment modalities employing immunotherapy will be discussed with an outlook on future therapies.