Published online Sep 28, 2016. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v8.i9.764
Peer-review started: January 14, 2016
First decision: February 29, 2016
Revised: July 25, 2016
Accepted: August 6, 2016
Article in press: August 8, 2016
Published online: September 28, 2016
Core tip: Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important non-invasive functional imaging modality that is being explored for the purpose of quantifying engrafted pancreatic islet. There are still several issues that must be overcome before PET can be adopted as the gold standard for the accurate, noninvasive, and non-toxic evaluation of native β cells or pancreatic islet mass in vivo, which remains a difficultly and highly challenging goal. To complement the previous review published in 2010 by our group, this review summarizes the latest developments in PET tracers (such as carbon-11, fluorine-18, copper-64 and gallium-68) for the imaging of pancreatic islet cells.