Observational Study
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World J Radiol. Nov 28, 2014; 6(11): 881-885
Published online Nov 28, 2014. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v6.i11.881
Association between facet joint osteoarthritis and the Oswestry Disability Index
Adel Maataoui, Thomas J Vogl, Marcus Middendorp, Konstantinos Kafchitsas, M Fawad Khan
Adel Maataoui, Thomas J Vogl, M Fawad Khan, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University, 60590 Frankfurt/ Main, Germany
Marcus Middendorp, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goethe University, 60590 Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Konstantinos Kafchitsas, Spine Surgery, Asklepios Clinic Lindenlohe, 92421 Schwandorf, Germany
Author contributions: Vogl TJ and Khan MF supervised the project; Maataoui A, Middendorp M, Kafchitsas K, Vogl TJ and Khan MF designed the study and analysed the data; Maataoui A, Middendorp M and Khan MF wrote the main paper; all authors discussed and interpreted the results and implications and commented on the manuscript at all stages.
Correspondence to: Adel Maataoui, MD, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. adel.maataoui@gmx.de
Telephone: +49-69-63015534 Fax: +49-69-63014222
Received: August 16, 2014
Revised: September 30, 2014
Accepted: October 14, 2014
Published online: November 28, 2014

AIM: To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

METHODS: The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom® Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P < 0.05.

RESULTS: In total 2364 facet joints at lumbar levels L4/5 and L5/S1 were analysed in 591 individuals. FJOA was present in 97% (L4/L5) and 98% (L5/S1). At level L4/5 (left/right) 17/15 (2.9%/2.5%) were described as grade 0, 146/147 (24.7%/24.9%) as grade 1, 290/302 (49.1%/51.1%) as grade 2 and 138/127 (23.4%/21.5%) as grade 3. At level L5/S1 (left/right) 10/11 (1.7%/1.9%) were described as grade 0, 136/136 (23.0%/23.0%) as grade 1, 318/325 (53.8%/55.0%) as grade 2 and 127/119 (21.5%/20.1%) as grade 3. Regarding the ODI scores, patients’ disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1.

CONCLUSION: The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain.

Keywords: Spine, Facet joint osteoarthritis, Magnetic resonance imaging, Low back pain, Oswestry Disability Index

Core tip: Together with secondary disorders facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) sets a big burden on health care systems and economics of the western countries. Although FJOA is a common finding on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), valid data with regard to correlation with clinical pain scores is missing. The presented study assesses the relationship between increasing grades of FJOA and the Oswestry Disability Score in a large cohort of lumbar MRIs. The results show a weak positive correlation between ODI and FJOA, proving the importance of an adequate clinical approach in patients with low back pain.