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World J Radiol. May 28, 2011; 3(5): 141-146
Published online May 28, 2011. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v3.i5.141
Era of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound
Hui-Xiong Xu
Hui-Xiong Xu, Department of Medical Ultrasound, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital and the Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, China
Author contributions: Xu HX solely contributed to this article.
Supported by (in part) Grant No. NCET-06-0723 from the Chinese Ministry of Education
Correspondence to: Hui-Xiong Xu, MD, PhD, Professor and Chair, Department of Medical Ultrasound, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital and The Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, 301 Yanchangzhong Rd, Shanghai 200072, China.
Telephone: +86-21-66301031 Fax: +86-21-66301031
Received: March 2, 2011
Revised: March 19, 2011
Accepted: March 25, 2011
Published online: May 28, 2011

It is an era of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound (US). Various new techniques such as three-dimensional US (3D US), interventional US, and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) have been introduced into clinical practice. Dr. Xu and his colleagues have taken advantage of these techniques and carried out a series of relevant studies. Their use of 3D US in the liver, gallbladder, liver tumor volumetry, guidance for ablation, and 3D CEUS has widened the application of 3D US in the clinic. They found that prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after thermal ablation with curative intent was determined by treatment response to ablation, pretreatment serum AFP, and liver function reserve. Tumor response to treatment was the most predictive factor for long-term survival. They compared the use of percutaneous microwave ablation and radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of HCC and found that both are effective methods in treating HCCs. The local tumor control, complications related to treatment, and long-term survival were equivalent for the two modalities. They first compared the enhancement patterns of HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and proposed the diagnostic clues for ICC, liver angiomyolipoma (AML), gallbladder cancer, renal carcinoma, and renal AML, which have greatly enhanced the role of CEUS in the clinic. They also evaluated the diagnostic performance of CEUS in characterizing complex cystic focal liver lesions and the agreement between two investigators with different experience levels; and found that CEUS is especially useful for the young investigator. They assessed the effect of anti-angiogenic gene therapy for HCC treated by microbubble-enhanced US exposure and concluded that gene therapy mediated by US exposure enhanced by a microbubble contrast agent may become a new treatment option for HCC.

Keywords: Ablation, Cancer, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, Interventional ultrasound, Liver, Three-dimensional ultrasound