Published online Jan 28, 2019. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v11.i1.1
Peer-review started: August 7, 2018
First decision: October 16, 2018
Revised: November 14, 2018
Accepted: January 9, 2019
Article in press: January 10, 2019
Published online: January 28, 2019
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a technique widely used for investigating metabolites in humans. Lipids are stored outside the muscle cell are called extramyocellular lipids (EMCL), and lipids stored on the inside of muscle cells are called intramyocellular lipids (IMCL). The relationship between metabolic syndrome and IMCL has been extensively studied.
To determine the effects of muscle fiber orientations on muscle metabolites using 1H MRS.
Chicken muscles were used as the subject in this study. MRS spectra were performed on a 1.5T Magnetic resonance imaging machine (1.5 Tesla Philips Achieva). A single voxel (8 mm × 8 mm × 20 mm) was placed on the chicken extensor iliotibialis lateralis muscle with the muscle fiber oriented at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° to the main magnetic field. 1H MRS spectra were acquired using a point-resolved spectroscopy, TR = 2000 ms, TE = 30 ms, and NSA = 256. Metabolites of interest from each orientation to the main magnetic field were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Differences less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant with 95%CI.
The metabolite profiles were different for each orientation of muscle fibers to the main magnetic field. The orientation at 90° was the most different compared to other orientations. The quantity of IMCL and EMCL exhibited statistically significantly changes with impacts at 30°, 60°, and 90° when compared with muscles aligned at 0° to the main magnetic field. Statistical analysis showed statistically significant IMCL (CH3), EMCL (CH3), and IMCL (CH2) at 30°, 60°, and 90° (P = 0.017, 0.018, and 0.018, respectively) and EMCL (CH2) at 30° and 60° (P = 0.017 and 0.042, respectively). EMCL (CH2) at 90° was unable to be measured in this study. The muscle lipids quantified at 30°, 60°, and 90° tended to be lower when compared to 0°.
Careful positioning is one of the most important factors to consider when studying 1H MRS metabolites in muscles to ensure reproducibility and uniformity of muscle metabolite spectra.
Core tip: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a technique that is widely used for intramyocellular lipids and extramyocellular lipids quantification in muscles, as evidenced in various studies. However, different muscle positions can potentially lead to inconsistency in metabolite quantification and can also impede interpretation of data, which can lead to misinformation. This study reveals that the muscle orientation at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° to the main magnetic field significantly affects the metabolite profile and quantification. The metabolite profile changes due to the muscle fiber orientation demonstrate that the positioning potentially causes inaccuracy in 1H-MRS spectrum analysis.