Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Cardiol. Feb 26, 2014; 6(2): 38-66
Published online Feb 26, 2014. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v6.i2.38
Table 4 Integrative approach to the treatment of hypertension
Intervention categoryTherapeutic interventionDaily intake
Diet characteristicsDASH I, DASH II-Na+ or premier dietDiet type
Sodium restriction1500 mg
Potassium5000 mg
Potassium/sodium ratio> 3:1
Magnesium1000 mg
Zinc50 mg
MacronutrientsProtein total intake from non-animal sources, organic lean or wild animal protein, or coldwater fish30% of total calories, which 1.5-1.8 g/kg body weight
Whey protein30 g
Soy protein (fermented sources are preferred)30 g
Sardine muscle concentrate extract3 g
Milk peptides30-60 mg
Fat30% of total calories
Omega-3 fatty acids2-3 g
Omega-6 fatty acids1 g
Omega-9 fatty acids2-4 tablespoons of olive or nut oil or 10-20 olives
Saturated fatty acids from wild game, bison, or other lean meat< 10% total calories
Polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio< 2.0
Omega 3 to omega 6 ratio1.1-1.2
Synthetic trans fatty acidsNone (completely remove from diet)
Nuts in varietyAd libidum
Carbohydrates as primarily complex carbohydrates and fiber40% of total calories
Oatmeal or60 g
Oatbran or40 g
Beta-glucan or3 g
Psyllium7 g
Specific foodsGarlic as fresh cloves or aged kyolic garlic4 fresh cloves (4 g) or 600 mg aged garlic taken twice daily
Sea vegetables, specifically dried wakame3.0-3.5 g
Lycopene as tomato products, guava, watermelon, apricots, pink grapefruit, papaya or supplements10-20 mg
Dark chocolate100 g
Pomegranate juice or seeds8 ounces or one cup
Sesame60 mg sesamin or 2.5 g sesame meal
ExerciseAerobic20 min daily at 4200 kJ/wk
Resistance40 min/d
Weight reductionBody mass index < 25Lose 1-2 pounds per week and
Waist circumference:increasing the proportion of lean muscle
< 35 inches for women
< 40 inches for men
Total body fat:
< 22% for women
< 16% for men
Other lifestyle recommendationsAlcohol restriction: Among the choice of alcohol red wine is preferred due to its vasoactive phytonutrients< 20 g/d
Wine < 10 ounces
Beer < 24 ounces
Liquor < 2 ounces
Caffeine restriction or elimination depending on CYP 450 type< 100 mg/d
Tobacco and smokingStop
Medical considerationsMedications which may increase blood pressure.Minimize use when possible, such as by using disease-specific nutritional interventions
Supplemental foods and nutrientsAlpha lipoic acid with biotin100-200 mg twice daily
Amino acids:
Arginine5 g twice daily
Carnitine1 to 2 g twice daily
Taurine1 to 3 g twice daily
Chlorogenic acids150-200 mg
Coenzyme Q10100mg once to twice daily
Grape seed extract300 mg
Hawthorne extract500 mg twice a day
Melatonin2.5 mg
N-acetyl cysteine500 mg twice a day
Olive leaf extract (oleuropein)500 mg twice a day
Pycnogenol200 mg
Quercetin500 mg twice a day
Resveratrol (trans)250 mg
Vitamin B6100 mg once to twice daily
Vitamin C250-500 mg twice daily
Vitamin D3Dose to raise 25-hydroxyvitamin
D serum level to 60 ng/mL
Vitamin E as mixed tocopherols400 IU