Review
Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.
World J Cardiol. Feb 26, 2014; 6(2): 38-66
Published online Feb 26, 2014. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v6.i2.38
The role of nutrition and nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of hypertension
Mark Houston
Mark Houston, Hypertension Institute, Saint Thomas Medical Plaza, Nashville, TN 37205, United States
Author contributions: Houston M solely contributed to this work.
Correspondence to: Mark Houston, MD, MS, MSc ABAARM, FACP, FAHA, FASH, FACN, FAARM, Hypertension Institute, Saint Thomas Medical Plaza, 4230 Harding Road, Suite 400, Nashville, TN 37205, United States. mhoustonhisth@yahoo.com
Telephone: +1-615-2972700 Fax: +1-615-3730302
Received: September 10, 2013
Revised: October 22, 2013
Accepted: December 17, 2013
Published online: February 26, 2014
Abstract

Vascular biology, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle and cardiac dysfunction play a primary role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and target organ damage. Nutrient-gene interactions and epigenetics are predominant factors in promoting beneficial or detrimental effects in cardiovascular health and hypertension. Macronutrients and micronutrients can prevent, control and treat hypertension through numerous mechanisms related to vascular biology. Oxidative stress, inflammation and autoimmune dysfunction initiate and propagate hypertension and cardiovascular disease. There is a role for the selected use of single and component nutraceutical supplements, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals in the treatment of hypertension based on scientifically controlled studies which complement optimal nutrition, coupled with other lifestyle modifications.

Keywords: Hypertension, Nutrition, Nutritional supplements, Cardiovascular disease, Vascular biology

Core tip: Vascular biology and endothelial dysfunction play a primary roles in hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Micronutrients, macronutrients and optimal nutrition and nutritional supplements can prevent, control and treat hypertension through numerous mechanisms related to vascular biology. These treatments are complementary to drug therapy. Oxidative stress, inflammation and autoimmune dysfunction initiate and propagate hypertension and cardiovascular disease. There is a role for the selected use of single and component nutraceutical supplements, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals in the treatment of hypertension based on scientifically controlled studies which complement optimal nutrition, coupled with other lifestyle modifications.