Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Cardiol. Feb 26, 2014; 6(2): 38-66
Published online Feb 26, 2014. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v6.i2.38
Table 2 Oxidative stress induces endothelial dysfunction, vascular disease and hypertension. Host protective factors include enzymatic and non-enzymatic defenses influenced by diet and nutrients
The cytotoxic reactive oxygen species and the natural defense mechanisms
Reactive oxygen apeciesAntioxidant defense mechanisms
Free radicalsEnzymatic scavengers
O2-Superoxide anion radicalSODSuperoxide dismutase
OH•Hydroxyl radical2O2- + 2H+→ H2O2 + O2
ROO•Lipid peroxide (peroxyl)CATCatalase (peroxisomal-bound)
RO•Alkoxyl2H2O2→ O2 + H2O
RS•ThiylGTPGlutathione peroxidase
NO•Nitric oxide2GSH + H2O2→ GSSG + 2H2O
NO2Nitrogen dioxide2GSH + ROOH → GSSG + ROH + 2H2O
CCl3TrichloromethylNonenzymatic scavengers
Vitamin A
Non-radicalsVitamin C (ascorbic acid)
H2O2Hydrogen peroxideVitamin E (α-tocopherol)
HOClHypochlorous acidβ-carotene
1O2Singlet oxygenCoenzyme Q
The superscripted bold dot indicates an unpaired electron and the negative charge indicates a gained electron. GSH, reduced glutathione; GSSG, oxidized glutathione; R, lipid chain. Singlet oxygen is an unstable molecule due to the two electrons present in its outer orbit spinning in opposite directions.Uric acid
Sulfh ydryl group
Thioether compounds