Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Cardiol. Oct 26, 2020; 12(10): 475-483
Published online Oct 26, 2020. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v12.i10.475
Electronic cigarettes — myocardial infarction, hemodynamic compromise during pregnancy, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction: Minireview
Borna Vajdi, Rasikh Tuktamyshov
Borna Vajdi, Department of Neurology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States
Rasikh Tuktamyshov, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, United States
Author contributions: Vajdi B performed the majority of the writing, compiled relevant literature, and data acquisition; Tuktamyshov R provided input, coordination, and outline of paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict of interest associated with any of the authors contributed their efforts in this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Rasikh Tuktamyshov, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, 20 York Street, New Haven, CT 06511, United States.
Received: April 18, 2020
Peer-review started: April 18, 2020
First decision: July 25, 2020
Revised: August 12, 2020
Accepted: October 5, 2020
Article in press: October 5, 2020
Published online: October 26, 2020

The aim of this study was to review the most recent literature on the safety of electronic cigarettes (ECs) in the context of cardiovascular disease and in the context as a tool for smoking cessation and recreational purposes. The format of this review begins with relevant research from the basic sciences and follows through with a pertinent review of clinical trials. Daily use of ECs has implications in myocardial infarction (MI) with an odds ratio of 1.70 compared to healthy, nonsmokers and even worse risk for MI with dual use of combustible cigarettes together with EC with an odds ratio of 4.62. Studies measuring cardiac function with echocardiography reported both systolic and diastolic dysfunction along with reduced ejection fractions. Platelet aggregation, endothelial function, and hemodynamics during pregnancy were all but some of the pernicious cardiovascular implications of EC exposure. Though more studies need to be done on the topic of EC use and cardiovascular disease, the majority of studies considered in this review concluded some level of harm albeit in some instances less than that of traditional combustible cigarettes. ECs are toxic to human beings and their harmful effects cannot be overlooked. There is some favorable evidence of efficacy in smoking cessation though mixed with concern of chronic EC use. It will take decades to collect data for chronic EC use on long term sequelae, such as lung cancer. Though more and more reports of acute lung injury and hospitalizations related to EC use have been reported. Due to undergoing investigations of possible harm and life threatening complications of EC use, we cannot recommend ECs as safer or a more efficacious method of smoking cessation to traditional nicotine replacement therapies. A notable consideration for much of the literature reviewed are that standardization of EC use is difficult as device generation and battery voltage, frequency of use, and contents of EC liquid are just some of the vast complicating factors that limit the ability to effectively compare data.

Keywords: Electronic cigarettes, Vaping, Cardiovascular effects, Electronic nicotine delivery, Angiogenesis, Nicotine replacement therapies

Core Tip: Electronic cigarette (EC) use is rapidly expanding to cigarette-native users including adolescents with little known available studies on long term use in both respiratory and cardiovascular systems. As most recent studies have focused on respiratory implications of EC use, there is much research to be done on cardiovascular ramifications. This literature review focuses on the most recent publications relating to EC use and oxidant formation, thrombogenesis, and myocardial infarctions, and examines the safety profile of ECs in smoking cessation and recreational use.