Published online Sep 26, 2019. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v11.i9.213
Peer-review started: March 28, 2019
First decision: August 2, 2019
Revised: August 14, 2019
Accepted: August 21, 2019
Article in press: August 21, 2019
Published online: September 26, 2019
Takotsubo syndrome is a wide spectrum disease with a dramatic clinical presentation mimicking acute coronary syndrome albeit without obstructive coronary disease and typically manifests in the backdrop of intense emotional or physical trigger. Pathophysiology is incompletely understood with multifactorial mechanistic pathways circling around a heart-brain-endocrine axis. Several anatomic and phenotypic variants exist with varied clinical manifestations. The aftermath of Takotsubo syndrome is not always benign and both short- and long-term complications can occur which may impact its prognosis. Several gaps in knowledge exist providing an impetus for tremendous future research opportunities.
Core tip: Further research is necessary in order to better understand the underlying triggers and pathophysiologic principles of Takotsubo syndrome which will help optimize both in-hospital acute and long-term management pathways.