Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Cardiol. Sep 26, 2019; 11(9): 213-216
Published online Sep 26, 2019. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v11.i9.213
Takotsubo syndrome: The past, the present and the future
Nauman Khalid, Pooja Sareen, Sarah Aftab Ahmad, Lovely Chhabra
Nauman Khalid, Section of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, United States
Pooja Sareen, Department of Medicine, Harrisburg Medical Center, Harrisburg, IL 62946, United States
Sarah Aftab Ahmad, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Saint Francis Medical Center, Monroe, LA 71201, United States
Lovely Chhabra, Department of Cardiology, Heartland Regional Medical Center, Marion, IL 62959, United States
Author contributions: All authors conceived the study and drafted the manuscript; Khalid N and Chhabra L approved the final version of the article.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Lovely Chhabra, FACC, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiology, Heartland Regional Medical Center, 3331 W Deyoung, Marion, IL 62959, United States. lovids@hotmail.com
Telephone: +1-508-6675052 Fax: +1-888-5986647
Received: March 27, 2019
Peer-review started: March 28, 2019
First decision: August 2, 2019
Revised: August 14, 2019
Accepted: August 21, 2019
Article in press: August 21, 2019
Published online: September 26, 2019

Takotsubo syndrome is a wide spectrum disease with a dramatic clinical presentation mimicking acute coronary syndrome albeit without obstructive coronary disease and typically manifests in the backdrop of intense emotional or physical trigger. Pathophysiology is incompletely understood with multifactorial mechanistic pathways circling around a heart-brain-endocrine axis. Several anatomic and phenotypic variants exist with varied clinical manifestations. The aftermath of Takotsubo syndrome is not always benign and both short- and long-term complications can occur which may impact its prognosis. Several gaps in knowledge exist providing an impetus for tremendous future research opportunities.

Keywords: Takotsubo syndrome, Triggers, Pathophysiology, Anatomic variants, Prognosis

Core tip: Further research is necessary in order to better understand the underlying triggers and pathophysiologic principles of Takotsubo syndrome which will help optimize both in-hospital acute and long-term management pathways.