Published online Oct 27, 2022. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v14.i10.1141
Peer-review started: August 23, 2022
First decision: September 26, 2022
Revised: September 28, 2022
Accepted: October 17, 2022
Article in press: October 17, 2022
Published online: October 27, 2022
Split liver transplantation (SLT) is a complex procedure. The left-lateral and right tri-segment splits are the most common surgical approaches and are based on the Couinaud liver segmentation theory. Notably, the liver surface following right tri-segment splits may exhibit different degrees of ischemic changes related to the destruction of the local portal vein blood flow topology. There is currently no consensus on preoperative evaluation and predictive strategy for hepatic segmental necrosis after SLT.
To investigate the application of the topological approach in liver segmentation based on 3D visualization technology in the surgical planning of SLT.
Clinical data of 10 recipients and 5 donors who underwent SLT at Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital from January 2020 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Before surgery, all the donors were subjected to 3D modeling and evaluation. Based on the 3D-reconstructed models, the liver splitting procedure was simulated using the liver segmentation system described by Couinaud and a blood flow topology liver segmentation (BFTLS) method. In addition, the volume of the liver was also quantified. Statistical indexes mainly included the hepatic vasculature and expected volume of split grafts evaluated by 3D models, the actual liver volume, and the ischemia state of the hepatic segments during the actual surgery.
Among the 5 cases of split liver surgery, the liver was split into a left-lateral segment and right tri-segment in 4 cases, while 1 case was split using the left and right half liver splitting. All operations were successfully implemented according to the preoperative plan. According to Couinaud liver segmentation system and BFTLS methods, the volume of the left lateral segment was 359.00 ± 101.57 mL and 367.75 ± 99.73 mL, respectively, while that measured during the actual surgery was 397.50 ± 37.97 mL. The volume of segment IV (the portion of ischemic liver lobes) allocated to the right tri-segment was 136.31 ± 86.10 mL, as determined using the topological approach to liver segmentation. However, during the actual surgical intervention, ischemia of the right tri-segment section was observed in 4 cases, including 1 case of necrosis and bile leakage, with an ischemic liver volume of 238.7 mL.
3D visualization technology can guide the preoperative planning of SLT and improve accuracy during the intervention. The simulated operation based on 3D visualization of blood flow topology may be useful to predict the degree of ischemia in the liver segment and provide a reference for determining whether the ischemic liver tissue should be removed during the surgery.
Core Tip: This is the first study to explore the application of the topological approach of liver segmentation based on 3D visualization technology in surgical planning of split liver transplantation. Clinical data of 10 recipients and 5 donors were analyzed. Couinaud liver segmentation and blood flow topology liver segmentation (BFTLS) methods were used to simulate operation, respectively. The volume of segment IV (the portion of ischemic liver lobes) allocated to the right tri-segment was 136.31 ± 86.10 mL as determined using BFTLS. Results showed that the approach of BFTLS may be useful to predict the range of ischemia in the liver section.