Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Diabetes. Jan 15, 2018; 9(1): 1-24
Published online Jan 15, 2018. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v9.i1.1
Table 5 Normal, borderline and abnormal values in tests of cardiovascular autonomic function[27]
Tests reflecting mainly parasympathetic function
Heart rate response to Valsalva Manoeuvre (Valsalva ratio)≥ 1.211.11–1.20≤ 1.10
Heart rate (R-R interval) variation≥ 15 beats/min11–14 beats/min≤ 10 beats/min
During deep breathing (maximum-minimum heart rate) immediate heart rate response to standing (30:15 ratio)≥ 1.041.01-1.03≤ 1.00
Tests reflecting mainly sympathetic function
Blood pressure response to standing (fall in systolic blood mmHg mmHg mmHg pressure)≤ 1011–29≥ 30
Blood pressure response to sustained handgrip (increase in diastolic blood pressure≥ 16 mmHg11–15 mmHg≤ 10 mmHg