Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Diabetes. Jan 15, 2018; 9(1): 1-24
Published online Jan 15, 2018. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v9.i1.1
Table 2 Abnormalities associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at the level of cardiovascular system and peripheral vascular function[5,45,46]
Cardiovascular systemPeripheral vascular function
Perioperative unstability↑ Peripheral blood flow and warm skin
Resting tachycardia↑ Arteriovenous shunting and swollen veins
Loss of reflex heart rate variations↑ Venous pressure
HypertensionLeg and foot oedema
Exercise intoleranceLoss of protective cutaneous vasomotor reflexes
Orthostatic hypotensionLoss of venoarteriolar reflex with microvascular damage
Postprandial hypotension↑ Transcapillary leakage of macromolecules
Silent myocardial ischaemia↑ Medial arterial calcification
Left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy-
QT interval prolongation-
Impaired baroreflex sensitivity-
Non-dipping, reverse dipping-
Sympathovagal imbalance-
Dysregulation of cerebral circulation-
↓ Sympathetically mediated vasodilation of coronary vessels-
↑ Arterial stiffness-