Published online Oct 15, 2016. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v7.i18.423
Peer-review started: April 8, 2016
First decision: June 12, 2016
Revised: July 22, 2016
Accepted: August 11, 2016
Article in press: August 15, 2016
Published online: October 15, 2016
Core tip: Pre-diabetes is a high-risk state for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There are three diagnostic criteria for pre-diabetes: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) between 39-46 mmol/mol. The concordance between a pre-diabetes diagnosis made by IFG, IGT or HbA1c is scarce and there are conflicting data as to which of these methods best predicts cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the evidence regarding the ability of HbA1c for pre-diabetes diagnosis and as a marker for cardiovascular risk. Finally, the evidence regarding non-traditional glycaemic biomarkers as alternatives to the traditional ones is reviewed.