Published online Jul 10, 2015. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i7.896
Peer-review started: August 30, 2014
First decision: December 17, 2014
Revised: January 1, 2015
Accepted: March 5, 2015
Article in press: March 9, 2015
Published online: July 10, 2015
Core tip: The metabolic syndrome is common, affecting about 40% of Americans. It is defined by combinations of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) including insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Research implicates hypovitaminosis D in the causation and phenotype of the syndrome and we present relevant data. While hypovitaminosis appears a risk factor for components of the syndrome and its outcome, the mechanism is unclear. The risks associated with varying levels of hypovitaminosis and the benefits of vitamin replacement are unknown. However, unravelling the association between hypovitaminosis and the syndrome is warranted as even a modest decrease in CVD risk would confer substantial benefits.