Basic Study
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World J Diabetes. Aug 15, 2022; 13(8): 613-621
Published online Aug 15, 2022. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v13.i8.613
Improved systemic half-life of glucagon-like peptide-1-loaded carbonate apatite nanoparticles in rats
Nabilah Ibnat, Rahela Zaman, Mohammad Borhan Uddin, Ezharul Chowdhury, Chooi Yeng Lee
Nabilah Ibnat, Rahela Zaman, Mohammad Borhan Uddin, Ezharul Chowdhury, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia
Chooi Yeng Lee, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia
Author contributions: Lee CY and Chowdhury E contributed to the study concept and design; Ibnat N, Zaman R and Uddin B acquired the data; Ibnat N, Uddin B, Lee CY and Chowdhury E analysed the data; Ibnat N drafted the manuscript; Lee CY reviewed and edited the manuscript; all authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Supported by an FRGS grant from the Ministry of Education, Malaysia, No. FRGS/2/2014/SG05/MUSM/03/1.
Institutional animal care and use committee statement: The study was reviewed and approved by the Monash University Animal Ethics Committee (Approval No. MARP/2016/008).
Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict-of-interest.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
ARRIVE guidelines statement: The authors have read the ARRIVE guidelines, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the ARRIVE guidelines.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Chooi Yeng Lee, PhD, Senior Lecturer, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.
Received: December 15, 2021
Peer-review started: December 15, 2021
First decision: January 12, 2022
Revised: January 24, 2022
Accepted: July 16, 2022
Article in press: July 16, 2022
Published online: August 15, 2022
Research background

Apart from Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists that are being widely used and studied, more effort should also be channeled to designing carrier with sustained release properties for native GLP1 because both approaches may be equally effective in improving the systemic half-life of GLP1.

Research motivation

The GLP1-carbonate apatite nanoparticles (CA NPs) overcome the short half-life of GLP1. The nanoparticles could be a potential therapeutic option for metabolic syndrome and warrant further investigation.

Research results

A stable GLP1-CA NPs was successfully fabricated. The NPs improved the systemic half-life of GLP1 as compared with free GLP1-treated rats. The increased plasma GLP1 Level was maintained for at least 4 h post-treatment.

Research methods

The nanoparticles were fabricated through complexation between GLP1 and CA NPs. The GLP1-CA NPs was then evaluated for physicochemical properties, tested for their potential cytotoxic effects on human cell line, and finally measured for systemic bioavailability in rats through intravenous administration.

Research objectives

To fabricate GLP1-loaded carbonate apatite nanoparticles (GLP1-CA NPs), and improve the systemic half-life of GLP1 through GLP1-CA NPs.

Research conclusions

pH sensitive inorganic carbonate apatite nanoparticles, which we have successfully formulated previously may be a potential carrier for GLP1.

Research perspectives

GLP1 is an endogenous peptide with established glucose lowering property. Its therapeutic use however is limited due to it being rapidly degraded in the systemic circulation. Nanosize particles with sustained release property may protect as well as extend the plasma half-life of GLP1.