Retrospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Diabetes. Aug 15, 2019; 10(8): 463-472
Published online Aug 15, 2019. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v10.i8.463
Comparison of awareness of diabetes mellitus type II with treatment’s outcome in term of direct cost in a hospital in Saudi Arabia
Muaed Jamal Alomar, Khadeja Rashed Al-Ansari, Najeeb A Hassan
Muaed Jamal Alomar, Khadeja Rashed Al-Ansari, Najeeb A Hassan, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates
Author contributions: Alomar MJ contributed in the proposal, design of the method, writing revision and analysis; Al-Ansari KR contributed in the performance of data collection writing and analysis; Hassan NA contributed equally to the work including design, writing and analysis.
Institutional review board statement: The study was reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Health and Prevention Research Ethics Committee.
Informed consent statement: We used a data collection form without signed consent.
Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict of interest to this study.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
Open-Access: This is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Muaed Jamal Alomar, BPharm, BSc, MSc, PhD, Associate Professor, Head of Department, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, University Street, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
Telephone: +97-150-7157641
Received: May 2, 2019
Peer-review started: May 5, 2019
First decision: May 31, 2015
Revised: June 8, 2015
Accepted: July 20, 2019
Article in press: July 20, 2019
Published online: August 15, 2019
Research background

Saudi Arabia is among the top 10 countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes. Cost of prevention and indirect cost must be calculated to increase the awareness of the society and to emphasize the importance of disease and limiting further complications.

Research motivation

Diabetes complications are the most expensive medical consequences encountered during diabetes management. Lack of patient education regarding lifestyle changes and medication use leads to treatment failure, which adds burden to both patients and the government.

Research objectives

The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between direct medical costs and individual demographic characteristics, different regimen of treatment, and well glycemic control. Here, we include the monthly cost of medications and the pharmacy average consumption of each oral hypoglycemic medication listed in the formulary. In addition, awareness of these patients of the disease and the role of lifestyle modifications in addition to oral hypoglycemic medication are explored. Lack of sufficient awareness will lead to high treatment cost with low therapeutic outcomes.

Research methods

A prospective descriptive and comparative face-to-face survey was carried out among patients with diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. The study included both genders of patients visiting the primary care medical center. Patients aged between 35 to 75 years who were on oral hypoglycemic were selected within the inclusion criteria. Pregnant women were excluded from the study. The prices and quantities of average monthly ordering costs of the medicine were collected from the institution.

Research results

Results of this study show a lack of proper counseling about lifestyle changes and medication use among patients with diabetes. This study urges other researchers to focus on patient counselling techniques and the barriers diabetic patients encounter during therapy.

Research conclusions

This study shows that there is a lack in patient education about the proper way to manage diabetes, which affects money expenditure on diabetic management. This study proposes the use of well-structured techniques by diabetic educators that include organized follow up plan and utilization of modern technology to reduce diabetic complications and improve quality of life.

Research perspectives

Future research should focus on the utilization of social media in promoting diabetes education in both diabetic and pre diabetic patients.