Published online Dec 15, 2018. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v9.i12.239
Peer-review started: June 26, 2018
First decision: July 19, 2018
Revised: September 1, 2018
Accepted: November 2, 2018
Article in press: November 3, 2018
Published online: December 15, 2018
To investigate the temporal sequence of pathological changes in the cellular structures of retina and choroidea in the early stages of diabetes in laboratory animals.
Experimental type 1 diabetes was modeled by three intraperitoneal injections of an alloxan solution into 30 male nonlinear rats at 16 wk of age. The 30th and 60th days from the final alloxan injection were chosen as the endpoints. Light and electron microscopy and morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed on histological slices of eyeballs from experimental animals.
Diabetic disturbances progressed to 60 d of the experiment. Thus, in the retina, a partial destruction of photoreceptors accompanied by interstitial edema was observed. The morphometric analysis revealed a reduction in the thickness of the retina. A reduction in the number of blood vessels of the choroid with disturbances of the endothelial cells and the vascular walls and a persistent reduction in the number of melanocytes were observed. The number of proliferating Ki-67 positive cells decreased, and the number of macrophages increased with diabetes development.
The starting point in the development of destructive changes involves early reduction in the number of melanocytes of the choroidea and alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium.
Core tip: Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes. However, most of therapeutic approaches being developed do not address the early and potentially reversible failure of retinal perfusion. Thus, we examined pathological changes in the cellular structures of retina and choroidea in the early stages of diabetes in laboratory animals. According to the obtained results, the starting point in the development of destructive changes involves the early reduction in the number of melanocytes of the choroidea and the destruction of the retinal pigment epithelium, accompanied by an inflammatory process, which may represent a potential therapeutic target.