Published online Apr 10, 2016. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v7.i7.153
Peer-review started: August 30, 2015
First decision: September 28, 2015
Revised: November 2, 2015
Accepted: February 14, 2016
Article in press: February 16, 2016
Published online: April 10, 2016
The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities.
Core tip: Foot at risk evaluation is crucial to diabetic foot ulceration prevention. Diabetic foot ulcer treatment includes standard wound care procedures, as well as, other novel treatment modalities always as add on therapy.