Published online Dec 15, 2021. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v12.i12.2036
Peer-review started: September 3, 2021
First decision: October 3, 2021
Revised: October 16, 2021
Accepted: December 7, 2021
Article in press: December 7, 2021
Published online: December 15, 2021
Hypoglycemia is a common complication in patients with diabetes, mainly in those treated with insulin, sulfonylurea, or glinide. Impairments in counterregulatory responses and hypoglycemia unawareness constitute the main risk factors for severe hypoglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia are associated with physical and psychological morbidity. The fear of hypoglycemia constitutes a barrier that impairs the patient’s ability to reach good glycemic control. To prevent hypoglycemia, much effort must be invested in patient education regarding risk factors, warning signs, and treatment of hypoglycemia at an early stage, together with setting personalized goals for glycemic control. In this review, we present a comprehensive update on the treatment and prevention of hypoglycemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.
Core Tip: Hypoglycemia in diabetes is associated with increased morbidity and constitutes a barrier to glycemic control. Great effort must be invested in patient education on hypoglycemia prevention and management. Herein we present the recent data on the treatment and prevention of hypoglycemia in diabetes, with a focus on the benefits of treatment adjustment and the role of continuous glucose monitoring.