Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. Jun 15, 2018; 10(6): 124-136
Published online Jun 15, 2018. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v10.i6.124
Table 1 Molecules reported to be associated with hematogenous metastasis from gastric cancer
MoleculeFull nameBiological functionSpecimensDetection methodsIn vivoAssociating molecules and cellsRef.
EMT and invasion into the circulation
VIMVimentinType III intermediate filamentGC tissueIHC-HER2[16]
GPR155G protein-coupled receptor 155Seven-pass transmembrane receptorGC tissue, GC cell lineqPCR, IHC-TWIST1, WNT5B, p-ERK1/2, p-STAT1[19]
Survival in the circulation
HIF-1αHypoxia inducible factor-1 alphaTranscription factor in response to hypoxiaGC tissueIHC--[25]
EGFL7Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7Epidermal growth factor for vasculogenesisGC tissue, GC cell lineqPCR, WB, IHCYesAKT, SNAI1[30]
Premetastatic niche
CXCL1C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1Inflammatory chemokine binding CXCR2CRC cell line, liver (M)1, lung (M)1, cecum (M)1ELISA, FCMYesCXCR2, VEGF-A, MDSCs[36]
TIMP1Tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1Inhibitor of MMPsPlasma, CRC tissue, CRC cell line, liver (M)1qPCR, ELISAYesSDF-1, Neutrophil[43]
Plasma, PDAC tissue, PDAC cell line (M), liver (M)qPCR, ELISA, IHCYesPI3K, CD63, SDF-1, HSC, Neutrophil[44]
Exosome-Cell-derived membrane vesicleCRC tissue, serum, CRC cell lineqPCR, WBYesmiR-203[51]
PDAC cell line, liver (M)1, lung (M)1, spleen (M)1, kidney (M)1, brain (M)1, bone marrow (M)1WB, IHC, IF, FCM, ProteomicsYesProteins2[52]
Migration, invasion and proliferation at the target organs
NFKB1/p105Nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1Transcription factorGC tissueFCM--[55]
GC tissueFCM-Ki-67[57]
MAP1LC3Microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3Subunit of MAP1 and associated with autophagyGC tissueIHC--[63]
BECN1Beclin1Autophagy regulator and component of PI3K complexGC tissueIHC--[63]
SQSTM1/p62sequestosome 1Activator of NF-kB signalingGC tissueIHC--[63]
MFSD4Major facilitator superfamily domain containing 4Multi-pass transmembrane proteinGC tissue, GC cell lineqPCR-BMP2, NUDT13, OCLN[64]
PAK1p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1serine/threonine p21-activating kinaseGC tissue, GC cell lineqPCR, WB, IHC, IFYesATF2, miR-132, CD44, FN1[66]
VEGF-DVascular endothelial growth factor-DGrowth factor for angiogenesisGC tissueIHC--[70]
TYMPThymidine phosphorylaseAngiogenic factorGC tissueIHC--[72]
GC tissueIHC--[73]
Biomarkers predicting hematogenous metastasis from GC
IL-6Interleukin-6Inflammatory cytokinesSerumELISA, CLEIA-HGF[78]
Glut1Glucose transporter-1Glucose transporterGC tissueIHC--[79]
HER2Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2Epidermal growth factor receptorGC tissueIHC, FISH--[80]
GC tissueIHC, FISH--[81]
NCPAP3NTase domain containing non-canonical poly(A) polymerase 3mRNA stabilizing factorGC tissue, GC cell lineqPCR--[82]
NPM1Nucleophosmin 1Nucleolar proteinGC tissueIHC--[83]
CXCR4C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4Inflammatory chemokine receptor binding CXCL12GC tissueIHC-CXCL12[84]
CXCL12C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12Inflammatory chemokine binding CXCR4GC tissueIHC-CXCR4[84]
D-Dimer-Fibrin degradation productPlasmaLEIA--[85]
Fibrinogen-Coagulation factorPlasmaClauss clotting method--[86]
CD44v6CD44 variant 6Adhesion moleculeGC tissueqPCR, IHC--[87]