Published online Jun 15, 2018. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v10.i6.124
Peer-review started: February 23, 2018
First decision: March 23, 2018
Revised: March 23, 2018
Accepted: April 19, 2018
Article in press: April 19, 2018
Published online: June 15, 2018
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the world. Most GC patients are diagnosed when the cancer is in an advanced stage, and consequently, some develop metastatic lesions that generally cause cancer-related death. Metastasis establishment is affected by various conditions, such as tumor location, hemodynamics and organotropism. While digestive cancers may share a primary site, certain cases develop hematogenous metastasis with the absence of peritoneal metastasis, and vice versa. Numerous studies have revealed the clinicopathological risk factors for hematogenous metastasis from GC, such as vascular invasion, advanced age, differentiation, Borrmann type 1 or 2 and expansive growth. Recently, molecular mechanisms that contribute to metastatic site determination have been elucidated by advanced molecular biological techniques. Investigating the molecules that specifically participate in metastasis establishment in distinct secondary organs will lead to the development of novel biomarkers for patient stratification according to their metastatic risk and strategies for preventing and treating distinct metastases. We reviewed articles related to the molecular landscape of hematogenous metastasis from GC.
Core tip: Gastric cancer (GC) has high cancer-related mortality, which is mainly caused by distant metastasis including hematogenous metastasis. Numerous steps are required to establish a metastatic focus, and understanding the molecular mechanisms of each step is necessary to conquer metastasis. Development and dissemination of sequencing technology have elucidated some of the molecular biological mechanisms associated with cancer metastasis. This review aims to summarize the molecules reportedly contributing to hematogenous metastasis from GC and to become the groundwork for the further development of novel biomarkers and molecular targets.