Published online Oct 15, 2017. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v9.i10.431
Peer-review started: February 23, 2017
First decision: May 7, 2017
Revised: May 30, 2017
Accepted: July 14, 2017
Article in press: July 17, 2017
Published online: October 15, 2017
Primary non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the esophagus are rare. Tracheoesophageal fistulas mainly arise from solid esophageal carcinoma or mediastinal malignancies. Our patient presented with cough, dysphagia and weight loss, and upon initial computed tomography imaging and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a malignant mass in the middle third of esophagus with tracheoesophageal fistula was found. The location of the mass and presence of malignant tracheoesophageal fistula were strongly suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. However, tumor biopsy revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This case report details a rare incident of a primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented as tracheoesophageal fistula and reviews previous literature.
Core tip: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of esophagus is a rare disease, and tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to this condition prior to treatment is extremely rare and fatal. However, it has better prognosis than fistulas secondary to solid tumor if patients receive timely treatment.