Published online Apr 15, 2021. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v13.i4.216
Peer-review started: December 4, 2020
First decision: February 14, 2021
Revised: February 23, 2021
Accepted: March 13, 2021
Article in press: March 13, 2021
Published online: April 15, 2021
Anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), also known as tumor endothelial marker 8, is a highly conserved cell surface protein overexpressed in tumor-infiltrating vessels. It was first found in vascular endothelial cells of human colorectal cancer. Although our understanding of its physiological function is limited, it has been found that ANTXR1 binds collagen and promotes migration of endothelial cells in vitro. ANTXR1 is upregulated in vessels of different tumor types in mice and humans, and is also expressed by tumor cells themselves in some tumors, such as gastric, lung, intestinal and breast cancer. Developmental angiogenesis and wound healing were not disturbed in ANTXR1 knockout mice, but compared with wild-type mice, growth of melanoma was impaired after ANTXR1 knockout, indicating that host-derived ANTXR1 can promote tumor growth on the basis of immune activity. Previous studies have shown that ANTXR1 vaccines or sublethal doses of anthrax toxin can inhibit angiogenesis, slow tumor growth and prolong survival. These studies suggest that ANTXR1 is necessary for tumor rather than physiological angiogenesis. It has been found that ANTXR1 plays an important role in tumor angiogenesisas well as in the growth and metastasis of many kinds of tumors. This article reviews the physiological function of ANTXR1 and its role in different kinds of cancer.
Core Tip: Anthrax toxin receptor 1, also known as tumor endothelial marker 8, is a highly conserved cell surface protein overexpressed in tumor infiltrating vessels.