Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. May 15, 2019; 11(5): 348-366
Published online May 15, 2019. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v11.i5.348
Effect of exercise on colorectal cancer prevention and treatment
Zeynep Oruç, Muhammed Ali Kaplan
Zeynep Oruç, Department of Medical Oncology, Mersin City Hospital, Mersin 33000, Turkey
Muhammed Ali Kaplan, Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey
Author contributions: Oruç Z contributed to writing of the article and investigation of data; Kaplan MA contributed to writing of the article, interpretation, and reviewing.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Muhammet Ali Kaplan, MD, Associate Professor, Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey. drmalikaplan@hotmail.com
Telephone: +90-53-37677131 Fax: +90-41-22488001
Received: February 25, 2019
Peer-review started: February 26, 2019
First decision: March 15, 2019
Revised: April 15, 2019
Accepted: May 3, 2019
Article in press: May 3, 2019
Published online: May 15, 2019
Abstract

In recent years, because of improved cancer screening, detection and treatment modalities, a rapid increase in the population of colorectal and other cancer survivors has been observed. The increasing population has justified the requirement of preventive strategies such as lifestyle modifications with regard to obesity, physical activity, diet and smoking. Physical activity may prevent approximately 15% of the colon cancers. Furthermore, several observational studies have demonstrated the efficacy and dose-dependent and anti-cancer effects of exercise on decreasing the mortality and risk of recurrence before and after the colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. However, the required exercise dose, type and intensity are yet unclear. The results of randomised prospective studies are expected to determine the optimal amount, type and intensity of exercise and formulate the most appropriate exercise plan and guidelines, according to the requirements and comorbidities of the patients. In addition, recent studies have focused on the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the effect of physical activity on disease outcomes and recurrence rates. This review aimed to investigate the effects of physical activity and the biological basis of these effects in preventing the risk and recurrence of CRC and decreasing the hazards of cancer and cancer treatment.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, Exercise, Physical activity

Core tip: This review aimed to investigate the effects of physical activity and the biological basis of these effects in preventing the risk and recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and decreasing the hazards of cancer and cancer treatment. Several observational studies have demonstrated the efficacy and dose-dependent and anti-cancer effects of exercise on decreasing the mortality and risk of recurrence before and after the CRC diagnosis. However, the required exercise dose, type and intensity are yet unclear. The results of randomised prospective studies are expected.