Published online Oct 16, 2021. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v13.i10.451
Peer-review started: April 4, 2021
First decision: June 24, 2021
Revised: July 4, 2021
Accepted: July 29, 2021
Article in press: July 29, 2021
Published online: October 16, 2021
Core Tip: The term “gallstone cholangiopancreatitis” is suggested to specify gallstone acute pancreatitis complicated by life-threatening acute cholangitis due to persistent ampullary stone impaction and needs urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with endoscopic sphincterotomy. The term “gallstone cholangiopancreatitis” incorporates the terms “cholangitis” and “gallstone pancreatitis.” “Cholangitis” refers to acute cholangitis due to cholangiovenous reflux through the foci of extensive hepatocyte necrosis reflexed by marked elevation in transaminase levels caused by persistent ampullary obstruction. “Gallstone pancreatitis” refers to elevated pancreatic enzyme levels consequent to pancreatic duct obstruction, the pancreatic lesion that is characterized by minimal or mild inflammation.